Notes & Sources

On Official and Primary Sources

There were several official investigations into the Sandy Hook shooting, the records from which constitute most of the evidence this narrative relies upon: first is Connecticut’s Report of the State’s Attorney for the Judicial District of Danbury on the shooting, which was based on the Connecticut State Police’s investigative files, and released in November 2013. This is generally cited below as “The CSP Official Report,” or similar.

Next is the “Child Advocate Report,” released by Connecticut’s Office of the Child Advocate in November of 2014, under the title “SHOOTING AT SANDY HOOK ELEMENTARY SCHOOL.” This report focuses on the childhood development of the Sandy Hook shooter, whereas the CSP report consists more of witness interviews and physical and digital evidence collection, and thus portrays the latter portion of the shooter’s life.

Meanwhile, there were also a handful of journalism pieces published in the years immediately after attack that reported a great many of the events portrayed in this story: “Raising Adam Lanza” by PBS Frontline and the Hartford Courant (including the unedited supplemental interviews and the e-mails Nancy wrote to Marvin LaFontaine) and Andrew Solomon’s interview with Peter Lanza, “The Reckoning,” published in The New Yorker in March 2014.

More recently, there was the FBI’s investigative files, from the support bureau lent to Connecticut for their 2013 report, and which were finally released more fully in October of 2017. In addition to several entirely new revelations, these pages also served to confirm the accuracy of much of the shooter’s online footprint that had been circulating on the internet for years by that point.

Finally, there are the files released by Connecticut as a result of The Hartford Courant’s legal fight to obtain them through FOIA requests. These are mostly school assignments and digital files from the Sandy Hook shooter, which were redacted from the official CSP report. These are generally noted in-text as being part of that release, and cite the Connecticut court decision requiring their release.

(This section is a work-in-progress, and will soon expand to convey more of how The Sheltered Storm was written, as more sources are added below.)

SOURCES

Prologue: Friday

This scene portrays what happened at 36 Yogananda on 12/14 based on just the physical evidence. The exact events and their order cannot be precisely known, as neither party survived. [A later chapter] depicts the collection of the physical evidence. As noted by a first responder, in the CSP supplemental report, “It appeared that the female had been ambushed and killed while sleeping in bed.”

He had taken the hard drive out…: CSP photo set “Sec 5 – Back-up Scene 1” 23-39

…impossible to recover, even for the FBI: CSP summary, footnote 2 reads “potentially important evidence, i.e., a computer hard drive recovered from the shooter’s home, as of this date remains unreadable. Additional insight could be gained should efforts to recover data from the hard drive ever prove successful, which at this time appears highly improbable.” Records note the hard drive was turned over to an FBI agent Warwick on 12/15/12.

A single bullet arced through the air…: CSP photo set “Sec 5 – Back-up Scene 1” 35

…she felt no pain: Nancy’s wounds are described in CSP Report supplements titled “Autopsy Observation Report” and “Body Survey”

Later that day, Nancy’s DNA…: CSP Initial Narrative Report filed 07-11-2013

Nancy kept childhood photos….: CSP photo set “Sec 5 – Back-up Scene 1″ 489-491

He left the rifle on the floor…:CSP Summary Report notes “in the chamber of the rifle was a spent .22 cal. shell casing and three live rounds were in the magazine.”

He turned left out of the driveway…: The driving route is assumed because it is the route he rehearsed twice, as depicted in [later chapters].

The delivery driver…:CSP Supplemental Report, interview with witness Brian Karr dated 01-10-2013. Invoice is in photo set “Sec 5 – Back-up Scene 1″ 235-238

The machine picked up…: CSP Official Report Supplement “Answering Machine Audio Recording Home Phone of 36 Yogananda St. Sandy Hook, CT” lists the messages recorded. (Audio of Nancy’s greeting circulated online after the shooting.)

Then the SWAT team broke through…: CSP Official Report Supplement file 00168314, and photo set “Sec 5 – Back-up Scene 1″ 645. (The “pause” between the answering machine message and the battering ram was actually about an hour, during which time a bomb-squad robot searched the home, as depicted in [a later Chapter]

1. The Shooter

Main source: A Report to Attorney General John K. Van de Kamp on Patrick Purdy and the Cleveland School Killings; October 1989, State of California (Nelson Jempsky, Chief Deputy Attorney General, et al)

…when the Trading Post Store in Sandy, Oregon put it on display: “After Shooting, Horror But Few Answers” — The New York Times; Reinhold, Robert 01/19/1989

“Obviously, he had a….”: “A Military Hang-up” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette Jan 19, 1989

“We’ll never know why”: quoted in “Escalating Hate Reportedly Consumed Gunman” — Los Angeles Times; Dan Morain and Louis Sahagun 01/19/1989

Then, they noticed the army men…: The press conference scene and evidence is shown in TV documentary series “The 20th Century with Mike Wallace” episode “Mass Murderers” (also depicted in [a later chapter])

2. Nancy

When the yearbooks came out…: Pages from the 1978 yearbook were published by PBS: Frontline as part of the program “Raising Adam Lanza” – (Koughan, Frank, Joe Beshenkovsky, John Marks, Mary Robertson, Alaine Griffin, Josh Kovner, and Matthew Kauffman. 2013.)

The homestead had been in the family for decades…: property records, Town of Kingston Assessing Office

…recognized as a historical site by the town: “Historic Preservation Assistance Project” Survey #105 (Champion House) — Rockingham Regional Council 03/19/1980

Various details about Nancy Lanza’s early life: “Connecticut gunman had New Hampshire ties” New Hampshire Union Leader (http://www.newhampshire.com/article/20121214/NEWS03/121219461); “For Lanza family, son Adam’s difficulties dominated” The Washington Post (https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/for-lanza-family-son-adams-difficulties-dominated/2012/12/17/3c0e8eb0-4890-11e2-ad54-580638ede391_story.html); “Solid Upbringings for Lanza Parents” Wall Street Journal (http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887324461604578194054206944718) “Nancy Lanza Remembered as Bubbly Caring Person” Moser, Douglas New Hampshire/Mass Eagle Tribune 12/15/12 (http://www.eagletribune.com/news/nancy-champion-lanza-remembered-as-a-bubbly-caring-person-by/article_6575d683-3336-54bb-8ab5-0f4d068f6747.html); “Nancy Lanza Recalled with Kind Words” The Connecticut Post (http://www.ctpost.com/local/article/Nancy-Lanza-recalled-with-kind-words-not-as-4568716.php)

“That was their food…”:“Raising Adam Lanza” Hartford Courant/PBS Frontline, transcript of interview with Marvin LaFontaine

Nancy started her own business…: Rockingham County, NH Business records (revealed in interview with unknown family member or friend, from FBI files released October 2017)

…her father-in-law, Peter S Lanza…: “Peter’s Story” Eagle-Tribune 12/7/2010 (http://obituaries.eagletribune.com/obituary/peter-lanza-2010-770834931)

She dropped out of college…: Nancy expresses her regret in an email exchange between her and the shooter (from the Child Advocate report) as depicted in [a later chapter]. The university is noted in FBI interviews with family members (dated 12/28/2012).

3. Assault Rifle

The Los Angeles Times archives were the main source for coverage of the California assault weapons ban. The law was generally referred to as the Roberti-Roos act in California at the time.

More than 700 Californians were gathered…: This welcome-home rally is described in President Reagan: The Role of a Lifetime by Lou Cannon. Various details also from Los Angeles Times stories 01/21/1989 and 01/22/1989

it was at this black-tie affair where he gave his first public comments…: Los Angeles Times 02/12/1989 (http://articles.latimes.com/1989-02-12/news/mn-2865_1_gun-control/2)

President Bush was wrapping up…: “The Public Papers of the President” US GPO, 1989 (The “PPP” records are used throughout this book, and are almost always the source whenever a president is speaking.)

“People are buying anything that’s ugly…“: The Los Angeles Times 5/20/1989 (http://articles.latimes.com/1989-05-20/news/mn-286_1_assault-weapons-owners-of-such-weapons-gun-dealers)

“Traders” history: TRADING IN DEATH – PROFILE OF A ROGUE GUN DEALER 2006. Brady Center to Prevent Gun Violence; (This source obviously has a political objective, but I found the publication to be reliable as to the relevant facts and events. The same is true of pro-gun partisan sources cited elsewhere.) Other notes from PBS Frontline story “Hot Guns”: https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/guns/procon/menace.html

…black residents in Oakland formed the Black Panther Party in 1966…: “ARMED NEGROES PROTEST GUN BILL” The New York Times 05/03/1967; (For an overview of the Panthers and their role in American history, Joshua Bloom’s Black Against Empire is recommended.)

Task Force on Assault Weapons: coverage from Los Angeles Times: http://articles.latimes.com/1989-01-13/news/mn-160_1_machine-gun and http://articles.latimes.com/1988-12-28/news/mn-911_1_assault-weapon and http://articles.latimes.com/1989-03-27/news/mn-444_1_gun-control-bill

The Attorney General entered the assembly chamber carrying an AK-47…: http://articles.latimes.com/1989-02-14/news/mn-2181_1_assault-weapons

The senate announced a series of public hearings…: The Los Angeles Times (http://articles.latimes.com/1989-04-05/news/mn-904_1_assault-weapon)

trying to tailor state law to specifically target Traders Sporting Goods… “BANNING THE IMPORTATION OF ASSAULT WEAPONS AND CERTAIN ACCESSORIES INTO THE UNITED STATES – Hearing before the Subcommittee on Trade of the Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives – HR 1154 – April 10,1989” (Page 18) This document is a source of many quotes in this chapter. Traders as a basis for the ban was also cited by the LA Times (http://articles.latimes.com/1988-12-28/news/mn-911_1_assault-weapon/3) and the 1989 ATF report on the Import Ban.

…assigned the Secretary of the Treasury with the task…: The ATF outlined their authority and the process behind the import ban in their official “REPORT AND RECOMMENDATION OF THE ATF WORKING GROUP ON THE IMPORTABILITY OF CERTAIN SEMIAUTOMATIC RIFLES” 07/06/1989

“As it became clear that the NRA was in retreat…”: Knox, Neal The Gun Rights War (full text of the ATF letter has circulated online)

passed with a single vote to spare…: Los Angeles Times http://articles.latimes.com/1989-05-19/news/mn-112_1_assault-weapons-ban-military-style-assault-types-of-semiautomatic-rifles

“…a solution to the Stockton tragedy”: “Efforts to ban rifles wound lobbyists” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 02/20/1989

These violent times…”: Los Angeles Times 3/12/1989 (http://articles.latimes.com/1989-03-12/opinion/op-764_1_gun-control-act/2)

The “import ban,” as it came to be known… “Assault-rifle Imports Temporarily Stopped” (http://articles.philly.com/1989-03-15/news/26127883_1_assault-rifles-israeli-uzi-belgian-fal)

a barrel shroud…: The ATF’s particular list actually did not include this feature, but it was on many later features lists that descended from the ATF’s, including the 1993 federal assault weapons ban.

…because of the dramatic increase in the number of these weapons…: “Permanent Import Ban on Assault Rifles” The Washington Post 7/8/1989

As far back as 1982, advertisers…: Ads collected by Violence Policy Center (“That Was Then, This is Now” 1998 and “Bullet Hoses” 2003)

“To do anything about domestically manufactured weapons…”: “Weapon import ban expanded” The Day 04/06/1989

Colt Industries announced…: Los Angeles Times http://articles.latimes.com/1989-03-16/news/mn-2136_1_assault-rifles

Bill decided to send his response to each member…: HR 1154 report (above)

The limitations of California’s name-ban approach: “Republicans call gun ban ineffective” Lodi News-Sentinel 06/02/1989

“The notorious AK-47, for example”: Bush actually named the AKS-47, a common variant.

The gun-related provisions of the 1990 crime bill…: H.R.2709 – Comprehensive Violent Crime Control Act of 1989

Several states…quietly dropped the issue…: “Wave of gun legislation begun But slowed to a ripple” Ellensburg Daily Record 01/02/1990 and “Clash of Arms – The Great American Gun Debate” State of Hawaii Office of Legislative Reference, 1991

…gun provisions were stripped: House daily record, Oct 4 1990 page H8865

4. Human Animal

Main source: Anatomy of a Massacre — Karpf, Jason & Elinor (a detailed account of every aspect of the Luby’s shooting.)

….any ammunition magazine that holds more than 15 rounds…: technically, the bill made an exception for tubular magazines of .22 ammo. (S.1241 – Biden-Thurmond Violent Crime Control Act of 1991)

…Congress was debating another crime bill in Washington….: “ANNOUNCEMENT OF TRAGEDY IN KILLEEN, TX (House of Representatives – October 16, 1991) [Page: H7970]”

…during the next day’s sessions…: House Daily Record, October 17 1991 [Page H8023] OMNIBUS CRIME CONTROL ACT OF 1991

President Bush granted a radio interview…: “Post-mortem on Killeen killings” Art Buchwald, Bangor Daily News 10/25/91

5. Earth Day

Something was definitely wrong…: Nancy’s difficult pregnancy, and the shooter’s early childhood, is documented in the Child Advocate Report, pgs 15-21 as well as Raising Adam Lanza.

…a photo of the newborn…: Cresta, Joey “Seacoast historian: Connecticut shooter born in Exeter” Seacoast Online 12/16/2012 (http://www.seacoastonline.com/article/20121216/NEWS/121219808)

…when a child is between 27 and 32 months…: New Hampshire state rules, Section He-M 500

…switched from “Family Centered Early Intervention”….pdf document “Part H of the IDEA Comes to NH” from dhhs.nh.gov

…One document from the time… Kovner, Josh & Altimari, Dave “Courant exclusive: More than 1,000 pages of documents reveal Sandy Hook shooter Adam Lanza’s dark descent into depravity” Hartford Courant 12/9/2018

…a woman named Suzanna entered…: this and later scenes featuring Suzanna are documented in her memoir, From Luby’s to the Legislature (Scene actually occurred in March 1995)

…signed into law by Governor George W. Bush: “Why Not Unconcealed Guns” The New York Times 09/03/1995

6. Frontier

Main source: Marvin LaFontaine granted an interview to PBS Frontline for “Raising Adam Lanza“. A full transcript of the interview was published, as a supplement to the episode, under the title “Marvin LaFontaine: ‘Those Kids Were Everything’ to Nancy Lanza.” His home movie footage, showing Officer Champion interacting with the scouts and the Lanzas, was also part of the episode. Many more details come from his interview with the Connecticut State Police (Book 7 of the official report, file 00196017)

…she was filing a lawsuit…: Suffolk County court records, cases 9584CV02884 Lanza et al v John Hancock Distributors Inc and 9601CV044533 Lanza, Peter vs. John Hancock Distributors Inc.

…after returning from the Green Berets in 1993, Nancy’s kid brother…“Conn. killer’s NH kin express sorrow” New Hampshire Union Leader Cousineau, Michael & Schreiber, Jason 12/15/2012 (also see Town of Kingston, NH Annual report years 1983 and 1995)

Nancy sent a letter to the school district, beginning…: Glorioso, Chris & Jorgensen, Erica & Stulberger, Evan “I-Team: Childhood Documents Reveal Sandy Hook Shooter’s Descent Into Depravity” NBC4 New York 1/22/2019

…masked the fact that expressive language…: Child Advocate Report, pg 20

7. Dawn

Connecticut was betting on Colt…: “Colt Unit Sold; Connecticut Among Buyers” The New York Times McQuiston, John; 03/23/1990

…a Belgian company, Fabrique Nationale…: http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/colt-s-manufacturing-company-inc-history/

“The state treasurer has made this very clear…”: “Critics say new Colt gun is an assault weapon” The Milwaukee Journal 04/25/1990

In California, it had been enough…: “Roberti Seeks State Ban on ‘Copy Cat’ Assault Rifles” Los Angeles Times; Moran, Julio 02/24/1994 and “Debut of Colt’s ‘Sporter’ Revives Assault-Rifle Debate” Jehl, Douglas 04/19/1990

“…a redesigned, renamed and renumbered version…”: “Lungren Files Suit to Add Semiautomatic Rifle to Banned List” Los Angeles Times 03/28/1991

…called attention to the gallery…: “Weicker Signs Bill to Forbid Assault Rifles” New York Times; Johnson, Kirk 06/09/1993

His vote put it over the top…: “Weapons Ban Is Approved by Connecticut Senate” New York Times; Johnson, Kirk 05/28/1993 and “Gun Ban Squeaks Throught” Hartford Courant Pazniokas, Mark 06/09/1993

It turned out the shooter had purchased…: “NRA loses shootout in Congress” The Times-News Dvorchack, Robert 07/08/91

…“the final war has begun”: “Terror in Oklahoma: Echoes of NRA” New York Times Butterfield, Fox 05/08/1995

“…his predecessors from the Oval Office…”: “Ford, Carter, Reagan Push for Gun Ban” Los Angeles Times; Eaton, William J. 05/05/94

“Randy Weaver at Ruby Ridge…“: Ruby Ridge happened under Bush, not Clinton. The error is LaPierre’s.

…Suzanna Gratia spoke…: “Subcommittee on the […] Judiciary, 103rd Congress, 2nd Session on S.1882” (US Congress)

“I was amazed to see the degree…”: “Feinstein Faces Fight for Diluted Gun Bill” Los Angeles Times; Bunting, Glenn F. 11/09/93

NRA history: “The Secret History of Guns” The Atlantic; Winkler, Adam; September 2011

NRA 1977 Cincinnati coup: “Rifle Group ousts Most Leaders in Move to Bolster Stand on Guns.” New York Times 05/23/77

“…He worried that if he didn’t fight back now, the NRA might even die“:Birnbaum, Jeffrey H. “Under the Gun” Fortune; Dec 1999

“…jack-booted thugs…“: (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CREC-1995-04-27/html/CREC-1995-04-27-pt1-PgS5745-2.htm)

“Your broadside against federal agents…”: “Letter of Resignation Sent By Bush to Rifle Association” New York Times; 05/11/95

8. Shangri-La

Moses Lake main source: “Scarred By Killings, Moses Lake Asks: ‘What Has This Town Become?'” Seattle Times 02/23/96 (Other details from coverage by The Spokesman: “How Many Were Shot?’ Boy’s Murder Confession Played At Emotional Evidence Hearing” 04/18/96; “Bloody movie, random violence thrilled Loukaitis, classmates say” 08/28/97; “Witnesses Say Loukaitis Vowed To Kill Prosecution Tries To Show Premeditation In Rampage” 04/17/96)

Bethel High: “WHERE RAMPAGES BEGIN: A special report.; From Adolescent Angst To Shooting Up Schools” The New York Times 06/14/98

Pearl High School main source: United States District Court, S.D. Mississippi, Jackson Division. Luke WOODHAM, Petitioner v. Michael WILSON and Jim Hood, Respondents. Civil Action No. 3:04cv48-HTW-JCS. Nov. 3, 2006. (Other details: “Mississippi Gothic” Time 10/20/1997)

Heath High School and Westside Middle School main source: Rampage: The Social Roots of School Shootings; Newman, Katherine

“Saint Paul reminds us…”: Clinton referred to this bible passage more famously after Columbine, but this was the first time.

Thurston High main source: “Of Arms And The Boy” Time 07/06/1998 and “The Killer at Thurston High” PBS: Frontline 6/18/2000

“WE HAVE DONE NOTHING WRONG…”: “Where Rampages Begin” New York Times (see above)

Chapter 9: Grand Adventure

Main source: Child Advocate Report, pg 16-20

Nancy brought Adam to a pediatric neurologist…: CSP Official Report, Book 7, file 00003128

…a fact which likely indicates that none were available…: The scarcity of support options available is noted throughout the Child Advocate Report, ex: pg 89

…there was never any comprehensive clinical evaluation performed…: Child Advocate Report, pg 20

…Titanic, …Casablanca: “Nancy Lanza In Her Own Words” and interview with Marvin LaFontaine, PBS/Courant “Raising Adam Lanza”

Adam dressed up for Halloween in 1997…: “EXCLUSIVE: Adam Lanza’s murder spree at Sandy Hook may have been ‘act of revenge'” New York Daily News Schapiro, Rich & Lysiak, Matthew 04/07/2013 (http://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/lanza-article-1.1309766)

…fired a gun, likely for the first time…: CSP Official Report, Book 7, file 00196017

…what Nancy called their ‘grand adventure.’: “School Gunman’s Downward Spiral” The Wall Street Journal 12/22/2012 (http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887324731304578193890846892734)

10. Snowdrop

The primary basis for this chapter are the facts documented by the Cullen Inquiry, released in two documents: “Transcript of Proceedings at the Public Inquiry into Incident at Dunblane Primary School on 13th Match, 1996 within The Albert Halls, Dumbarton Road, Stirling” – a 3,376 page transcript of the inquiry (and also a 193 page summary with the same title, ISBN 0101338627.)

The latter portion of this chapter, dealing with the aftermath of the Dunblane shooting and a grieving father’s efforts with the Snowdrop Appeal, are from Mick North’s book Dunblane: Never Forget unless otherwise noted. (A great deal of Mr. North’s story deals with the shortcomings, if not corruption, of the Scottish Police. This was not included, in the interest of pacing. I highly recommend reading his book; similarly, there are facets to the “Scoutmaster” that were not mentioned or explored here: key among them, that the shooter had a history of financial insolvency that was catching up with him around the time of his attack.)

Sources from the Cullen Inquiry files are listed by name of witness giving testimony.

The surgeon: Brian David Fairgrieve; van incident: Robert Comrie Deuchars; (Note: the “leadership badge” in real life was something called a ‘warrant book,’ but functioned as depicted. Name changed for clarity.) firearms license renewals: Douglas McMurdo; Ombudsman’s Investigation: David Shelmerdine; Scoutmaster on family’s doorstep: George Robertson.

Hungerford details: “Arms dealer who sold rifle used in Hungerford massacre jailed for trafficking deadly missiles” Evening Standard Cheston, Paul 7/20/2012

…British Shooting Sports Council announcing a $160,000 publicity campaign…: “A Second Mass Killing in Britain Raises Call for Tighter Gun Laws” New York Times 10/16/87

Island camp, letter from concerned officer: George Gunn; Video from the camp: Joseph Holden; Bucket of “rubbish”: Janet Reilly (Note: Lord Cullen expressed doubt over several aspects of this witness’s testimony, but noted that the portions shown here had multiple corroborating witnesses); CPS letter: William Gallagher; Constable visiting flat: Anne Anderson; Purchase of handgun: Gary Hyde (Note: The transaction for the murder weapon was actually more involved, with the shooter trying to return it, and the gunsmith tricking out the gun significantly to get him to accept it); Letter to Dunblane Primary School: Ronald Taylor; Gunman pointed pistol: James O’Hanlon Gillespie; Letter to Buckingham Palace: John Ogg; Van rental: Karen Gillies; friend on phone: Danny McDonald; Dunblane shooting series of events: Malcolm Rodger Chisholm & Dunblane Report summary, statement of David Duke Scott

“…Murder and mayhem are ineradicably part of what…”: “Claiming a Right to Murder” – Theodore Dalrymple, The Spectator 30 March 1996

Naming of “Snowdrop Appeal”: “The Parents, the Government and the Gun” The Independent Castle, Stephen 10/20/1996 (Note: The launch of the “Snowdrop Appeal” occurred before the Cullen Inquiry convened, as did Mick North’s editorial.)

Dunblane Inquiry outcome: House of Commons transcript, HC Deb 16 October 1996 vol 282 cc823-32

…the father from Dunblane found that he agreed more with what an editorial…: Dunblane: Never Forget North, Mick pg 205; “Given the incidence of mental illness…”: pg 170; “…No more worship of guns”: pg 111; A month later, the gym was torn down entirely…”; pg 267; “…classes were back in session…”: “School takes small step on road back to normality” The Irish Times 03/23/96; “To be objective and detached is to deny the reality…”: North, pg 146; “…The spectre of the most pernicious and evil legislation…”: pg 183; “In the absence of guns he will use arson, or a stolen lorry…”: House of Commons transcript, HL Deb 24 October 1996 vol 575 cc23-102; …voice of actor Sean Connery…: North, pg 189; Home Secretary statement on passage of SA: “Daily Hansard” UK Parliament 10/16/1996; 1 year anniversary statement: North, pg 263

11. The Village

Newtown geology/geography: “Natural Resource Inventory: Updating Newtown’s Plan of Conservation and Development” – Town of Newtown report, March 2002

Quanneapague settlement, early history: Historical Notes and Maps – Newtown: 1705-1758 Boyl, John Neville (additional details: Newtown Historical Society, http://www.newtownhistory.org/the-settlement.shtml and town report “Sandy Hook Design District Guidelines” Newtown Design Advisory Board, Feb 2007)

The natives were peaceful…: As noted, this is a drastic oversimplification; though the initial settlers dealt peacefully with the natives, there were tensions between the natives and settlers, sometimes escalating into violence, well into the 1800’s. This is evident in Newtown’s BiCentennial and other texts.

Formation of intersection: Newtown’s History and Historian Ezra Levan Johnson with additional material by Jane Eliza Johnson; the Historian’s Life Companion, 1907; (other details: Newtown’s BiCentennial – 1705-1905 edited by Ezra Johnson with James Hardin George and Allison Parish Smith 1905, and 1714-1914 The Story of Two Centuries Newtown Congregational Church, 1914)

Construction of mill: “The Mills Of Newtown––A Town Moves Forward On Waters And Wheels” Howard, Jan The Newtown Bee 02/07/2003

Rev. Toucey: The Tousey Family in America compiled by Theodore Cuyler Rose, Elmira NY 1916

Great Awakening: The Great Awakening of 1740 Frederic Leonard Chapell, American Baptist Publication Society, 1903

John Beach: The Reverend John Beach and his Descendants Rebecca Donaldson Beach and Rebecca Donaldson Gibbons, 1895

Pamphlet war: A Mosaic of Newtown History Cruson, Dan; Newtown Historical Society (highly recommended; this book documents many of the local-history events depicted in this chapter, and dozens more.)

Trinity Church: “Our History” (http://www.trinitynewtownct.org/our-history.html)

French soldiers: The Journal of Claude Blanchard, Commissary of the French Auxiliary Army sent to the United States during the American Revolution, 1780-1783 (translated by William Duane and edited by Thomas Balch, 1876)

First mass: “St Rose Ceremony Marks Newtown’s Link To Church History” The Newtown Bee 11/27/1998 (https://www.newtownbee.com/08101999/date-fri-27-nov-1998-23/)

To this day, the lanes of West Street briefly split…: The split lanes really mark the end of West Street, since the road changes to Church Hill Road on the east side of the intersection.

Irish immigrants, newspaper war: A Mosaic of Newtown History Cruson, & Newtown’s History and Historian, Johnson

Founding of the NRA: “Rifle Practice” Army Navy Journal 04/01/1871; “Rifle-Shooting Association” 08/12/1871

The Flagpole: A Mosaic of Newtown History Cruson, Dan & Newtown Historical Society

Army maneuvers 1912: “Red Army Fording Way to New York” New York Times, 08/14/1912; “New York to Known War Danger To-Day” 08/17/1912; “Big War Game Ends, New York is Saved” 08/18/1912; and Images of America: Newtown 1900-1960 Cruson, Dan

Hawley School, academy fire of 1920: “New Booklet Fills In Some Gaps In The History Of Newtown’s Schools” Newtown Bee 1/10/2001 (https://www.newtownbee.com/01102001/new-booklet-fills-in-some-gaps-in-the-history-of-newtowns-schools/)

Edmond Town Hall: “In Newtown, Going to the Movies is Still a Bargain” New York Times 10/29/89 (naming of: “William Edmond is an Under-sung Hero of Newtown” Patch.com Cruson, Dan 01/15/2010 [https://patch.com/connecticut/newtown/william-edmond-is-an-under-sung-hero-of-newtown])

“Scrabble” development: A Mosaic of Newtown History Cruson, Dan & Newtown Historical Society

SHES construction: “The Last Time Newtown Built a School in Sandy Hook” Silber, Alissa The Newtown Bee 11/07/2013

JFK plaque at SHES: “The Way We Were” The Newtown Bee, 06/20/2014 (reprint of June 26, 1964 headlines)

12. Yogananda

…the Bressons sold their land…: “Francis J. Bresson” (Obituary) The Newtown Bee 06/10/2016

Yoganda property boundaries: property records with Newtown Town Clerk’s Office, Map 20. 6891, various records associated with “Bennetts Farm” and Map No 6891

Population growth: Newtown Population Projections 2000-2030, prepared for Town of Newtown, Connecticut by H.C. Planning consulants, Inc. June 15, 2008

The names of more recent paths…: “The People Behind the Names of Newtown’s Roads” The Newtown Bee Crevier, Nancy 03/28/2008

…the damming of the Housatonic…: National Park Service National Register of Historic Places: Ref. 00001073 Stevenson Dam Hydroelectric Plant

Dr. Yogananda: “Across the Black Water – A Study of Two Hindu Sects in North America” – Martin Shiels, 1978 (Master’s Thesis, Simon Fraser University) and A Short Life of Swami Vivekananda” By Swami Tejasananda, and “Crystal Reading” Davenport Daily Leader, 5/22/1901 (Note: “Dr. Yogananda” aka Dr. Street is a very curious figure, appearing in some historical records and various occult publications under the name “JC Street” or “JB Street” – he appears to have been the same “John C Street” who wrote “The Way Across the Threshold” in 1889, an occult/secret-society book that records some of the same “crystal” rituals that Dr. Yogananda was known for. He later appears in a New York Times report of court hearings from 1903, “This ‘Doctor’ a ‘Reader'” in which a judge appears none too impressed with his credentials as either a doctor or psychic. At one point, Dr. Yogananda protests that his magic crystals allow him to “foretell paralysis.”)

Parahamansa Yogananda as likely namesake: “Yogananda Street: a killer’s address” CT Post Hutson, Nanci 10/13/2013 (life events: yogananda-srf.org “Chronology for web” and Autobiography of a Yogi)

15 Lots on 132 acres: “Hearings Continue On Whispering Pines And Tamarack Woods” The Newtown Bee Gorosko, Andy 07/12/1996; Scenic view: “P&Z Proposes Stricter Regs” 02/28/97

“Nothing out of the ordinary…”: “World Exclusive: Inside Adam Lanza’s Bunker of Death” The National Enquirer (Note: this is a tabloid source, as sometimes overlaps with this case due to its sensational qualities; the interview is nonetheless genuine.)

…looking for a “fresh start.”: Child Advocate Report, pg.24

Nancy furnishing 36 Yogananda: “Nancy Lanza in Her Own Words” Frontline; (Items also pictured in CSP photo set “Sec 5 – Back-up Scene 1” image 29, 105; and “Sec 4 Primary Scene” images 52-55)

Sandy Hook shooter’s arrival at 1st grade: Child Advocate report, Pg. 27 (1st grade photo: “Raising Adam Lanza”; Frontline Note: That the teachers in the shooter’s class always appear in group photos with the shooter positioned “within arms reach” is an observation I first heard of from blogger “Sandy Hook Facts” at sandyhookfacts.com)

SHES Culture Corner: “Dispelling Myths About Native Americans” Newtown Bee 12/04/98 and “Mexico Comes To The Culture Corner” 02/12/1999 (Note: neither article specifically mentions any student by name, but the teacher and time period are the same as the class photo showing the shooter, and shown in documents released after the Courant’s FOIA lawsuit)

13. The Ghost in the Cabin

McVeigh maintained regular correspondence…: “The Prison Letters of Timothy McVeigh” Esquire Bacharach, Phil 06/11/2015

Unabomber main sources: The United States of America Versus Theodore John Kaczynski: Ethics, Power and the Invention of the Unabomber Mello, Michael 1999 and “The Unabomber Case” – FBI Archives, 4/24/2008, and “UNITED STATES v. KACZYNSKI” 2001

14. Promised Land

Arraignment of Thurston shooter: “Kinkel Arraigned For Shootings” CBS News 06/16/1998

Thurston shooter, various notes: “Oregon Teen Killer Drops Insanity Plea” Los Angeles Times Murphy, Kim 09/25/1999 and “Lethal Fantasies of a 15-Year-Old Became a Reality” New York Times Terry, Don & Bruni, Frank 05/24/1998; “three voices”: “The Killer at Thurston High” PBS Frontline Dr. Orin Bolstad testimony

NRA/Metaksa on Thurston: “NRA hails shooting survivor a hero” Associated Press 06/09/1998

Heston speech: “NRA TV” Charlton Heston 1998 meetings Season 4 Episode 2

“A child issue, not a gun issue”: “New Voice of the NRA Sounds Familiar” Washington Post Russakoff, Dale 06/09/1998

Tobacco settlements inspired gun liability strategy: “Big Guns” Boyer, Peter J. The New Yorker 05/17/1999

New Orleans: “New Orleans is Expected to Sue Gun Manufacturers” Los Angeles Times 10/30/1998 and: “Mayor Marc H Morial, and the City of New Orleans vs. Smith & Wesson Corp., Sturm Ruger & Co, Colt et al”; Chicago: “Chicago Sues Gun-makers And Retailers The Lawsuit Says Firearms Create A Deadly Public Nuisance” The Philadelphia Inquirer 11/13/1998; Bridgeport: “After Tobacco, Handgun Lawsuits” New York Times 01/31/1999

SHOT show: “Heston shows at gun rally” Athens Banner-Herald 02/02/1999

NSSF founding, main source for most NSSF details throughout: The National Shooting Sports Foundation: A History, 1961 to 2011 by Doug Painter

Notes from original NSSF founding dinner: http://web.archive.org/web/20130509213257/http://www.nssf.org/50/gunsandammo.cfm (Re-publishing a Guns and Ammo article from November 1961)

15. Eagles Circle

Nancy’s e-mails with Marvin LaFontaine: “Nancy Lanza In Her Own Words” (PBS Frontline & the Hartford Courant)

“…the bare minimum as far as participation…”: CSP Report, Book 7, file 00255780

Eagles of Shepaug dam: “All Eyes On The Eagles” Newtown Bee, 02/19/1999 (NOTE: Nancy appears to have read this same story, or spoke to someone who had, given the numbers of eagles she cites in her email to LaFontaine.)

16. Revolution

Most of the events depicted in this chapter are from the Jefferson County Sheriff’s Office investigation file of the Columbine shooting, commonly referred to as “the 11k”. (The numbering expanded as more exhibits were released as depicted in [later chapter].) These sources are listed by their document number within the 11,000+ page file, with the prefix “JC”.

Chat conversation: JC-001-026574 (Note: the portrayal of this exchange omits one line, for readability); “Know what I hate/love” lists: JC-001-010411; “Hitmen for hire” tape: JC-001-026274 (NOTE: One of the shooters listed the day’s filming in his planner as “trench coat mafia hitmen”); Right was the more dedicated of the pair…: an observation based on ballistics from the scene, as well as the dynamic apparent in first-hand reports on the “Basement Tapes,” and the preparations evident in the journals; Left’s journal: JC-001-026385; “Man in Black” story: JC-001-010465; Brady Bill, “Shot themselves in the foot”: JC-001-026538; Ketchup Incident: A Mother’s Reckoning: Living in the Aftermath of Tragedy by Sue Klebold, and “The Missing Motive” Westworld Pendergast, Alan 07/13/2000; Drug search incident: No Easy Answers by Brooks Brown; Gun show: JC-001-010620; Farewell video: JC-001-010376; Diversion bomb response: JC-001-007952; Propane receipts: JC-001-025955; general timeline of attack: Columbine Review Commission, May 2001 Governor’s Report; Library encounters: Various files throughout 11k, including JC-001-008798 and JC-001-000075 and JC-001-000089; Car Bomb timers: A Mother’s Reckoning (Klebold); sprinkler in library: JC-001-007884

17. Cascade

“ONE BLEEDING TO DEATH….“: (Note: the sign actually said “1” instead of the spelled-out “one”)

Early footage of Columbine: ABC News Archives, 04/20/1999 (http://abcnews.go.com/Archives/video/april-20-1999-columbine-shooting-9541833)

“Most kids didn’t want them there…”: “The Columbine Tapes” Time Gibbs, Nancy & Roche, Timothy 12/20/1999

“The ultimate bullies” https://youtu.be/AFAcUlUswmE (clip from The New Ricki Lake Show, February 2013)

National debate on bullying in schools: “10 years alter, the real story behind Columbine” USA Today 04/14/2009

Tony Blair on Columbine: House of Commons transcript, 21 April 1999

“…how important it was to ban handguns…”: Note: With relatively few details available yet on the arsenal that the Columbine shooters used, many assumed at this time, incorrectly, that handguns were their primary weapons. It is perhaps noteworthy, though, that the long-guns used at Columbine would have been banned in the UK as well, after the earlier post-Hungerford firearms law.)

David Kaczynski, “more Tim McVeighs”: “Internet firms asked to keep bombmaking sites off Web” Associated Press 05/20/1999

The Anarchist Cookbook Powell, William 1971

Dream Catcher: “From Columbine to Sandy Hook: Muskegon dream catcher reveals a tearful journey” Muskegon News Moore, Lynn 10/11/2013

Newtown Bee on NHS ceremony: “Columbine Commemoration Will Be A Call For Understanding” Bigham, Steve 05/14/1999 and “Adopting a Covenant of Understanding” 06/04/1999; town’s parents concerned: “NPC Releases Findings on Violence, Hears Suggestions” White, Jeff 10/14/1999 and “Parents Express Their Worries About School” 08/10/1999

…at Duck Pin Bowling: “Raising Adam Lanza” (Frontline)

…she was actually very ill…: Nancy’s health concerns are also detailed in the Child Advocate Report, pgs 29-31

“Thoughtful friend to peers” and other development notes: Child Advocate Report pgs 26-28

Thank-you card: CSP photos “Sec 4 Scene Search Day 3” images 72-75

“Quiet depth,” 2nd grade notes: “A frustrating search for motive in Newtown shootings” The Washington Post Fisher, Marc and O’Harrow, Robert and Finn, Peter 12/22/2012

Nancy at birthday party: CSP report, Book 7, file 00256780

18. Wave of Evil

Lautenberg Amendment: S.Amdt.362 to S.254 / 106th Congress of the United States (1999-2000)

Clinton response to Dakota Ridge: Public Papers of the President

Heritage High School shooting: “Heritage shooting suspect wrote about Trench Coat Mafia” Associated Press Pilcher, James 08/10/1999 and: “Ga. Boy Took Parents’ Guns” Washington Post 05/22/1999

…nothing to do with Littleton or Georgia”: Congressional Record, US House, 06/07/1999

Columbine father quotes: US Congress, Testimony of Darrell Scott Father of Two Victims of Columbine High School shootings Littleton, Colorado Before the Subcommittee on crime 05/27/1999

Background on Rep. McCarthy (the nurse) and platform: “Widow in L.I.R.R. Massacre Considers Race for Congress on Gun Ban” New York Times 04/12/1996

NSSF on gun show amendment: “Newtown’s NSSF Steps Into The Spotlight Of The Gun Control Debate” Newtown Bee 03/03/2000

…nothing but a backdoor attempt at gun control…”: “Legislators want to shoot down lawsuits against gun makers” Associated Press 02/24/1999

Texas gun shield law:”Bush quietly signs NRA-backed gun bill” CNN.com 06/18/1999

Wedgewood Baptist Church shooting: Night of Tragedy, Dawning of Light Crawford, Dan R. (other details from special coverage “Fort Worth Church Shooting” Fort Worth Star-Telegram

Gore and Bush campaign quotes, “Wave of Evil”: “Texas shooting draws broad reaction from presidential candidates” CNN.com 09/17/1999

19. Wave of Evil

The Leesburg symposium actually happened in July. The NCAVC report is blended in with the symposium’s operations more than may be accurate, as there is no available transcript of the symposium.

Main source: The School Shooter: A THREAT ASSESSMENT PERSPECTIVE (FBI)

Various notes on “leakage”: Newspaper of the American Psychiatric Association, Volume XXXII Number 12 06/21/2002

Notes on Padukah shooter, structure of the family: RAMPAGE: The Social Roots of School Shootings (Newman)

“…an idea we’ve accepted…”: “Kip Kinkel: A Boy’s Life” Rolling Stone Sullivan, Randall 10/01/1998

Secret Service study on assassinations: “Preventing Assassination: A Monograph” Fein, Robert A. Ph.D. & Special Agent in Charge Bryan Vossekuil, Secret Service Case Study Project, May 1997

“They put us in a room”: “A Radical New Look at Mass Shooters. Why They Do It and How to Stop Them” Critical Incident Analysis Group, University of Virginia School of Medicine

Details of Reagan assassination attempt, various trial notes: Prosecutive Report: John Warnock Hinckley, Jr. Attempted Assassination of Ronald Reagan, President of the United States March 30 1981 – U.S. Department of Justice; Federal Bureau of Investigation

“Assassin of Rulers” profile (quoted in Secret Service Report): Arthur MacDonald, Assassins of Rulers, 2 J. Am. Inst. Crim. L. & Criminology 505 (May 1911 to March 1912)

“We’re looking for different pieces of the puzzle…”: Chicago Sun-Times 10/16/2000

20. Distortion

Emails are from “Nancy Lanza in her own words”, Frontline

“Significant stress in her life…”: Child Advocate Report, page 30

21. Basement Tapes

News conference: “H.S. KILLER TAPE MAY AIR BY JANUARY” New York Post Kaplan, Don 12/22/1999

Basement Tapes: Columbine “11k” file JC-001-010376

Controversy over agreement with TIME: Columbine: A True Crime Story Kass, Jeff

…no less than 130 students stayed home…: “High School Responds to Shooting Rumor” Newtown Bee 03/22/2000

Shooter’s education at SHES: Child Advocate Report pgs 26-28

Shooter alone on playground: CSP report, Book 7, file 00256780

22. Smart Guns

Boston Agreement: White House Press Release 03/17/2000: “CLINTON ADMINISTRATION REACHES HISTORIC AGREEMENT WITH SMITH AND WESSON” and “Gun Group Sues To End Pact On Safety Devices” Chicago Tribune 04/27/2000

Million Mom March: White House Press Release 05/08/2000 “President Clinton Meets With Million Mom March Organizers and Renews His Call”

Mick North at Million Mom March: Dunblane: Never Forget (North)

Suzanna Gratia, Second Amendment Sisters: From Luby’s to the Legislature (Gratia-Hupp)

Project Homesafe: The National Shooting Sports Foundation: A History 1961 to 2011 (Painter)

NSSF “Flag” ad: “U.S. mayors, Sheen take aim at gun ad” Variety McClintock, Pamela 08/23/2000

Cucchiara on election: “Gore, Bush Split Over Guns; Other Justice Stands Similar Oakland Tribune 10/03/2000

CA AWB expansion: California Department of Justice Kasler v. Lockyer Assault Weapon List Monday, October 02, 2000; “Senate Bill 23 Assault Weapon Characteristics”

Heston visits UK: “Heston attacks British gun laws BBC.co.uk 11/15/2000 and “Heston’s gun claims criticized” 11/15/2000

23. The Ghost in the Cage

Kaczynski on McVeigh: letter from Ted Kaczynski published in American Terrorist: Timothy McVeigh & the Oklahoma City Bombing Michel, Lou and Herbeck, Dan

McVeigh on Kaczynski: CBS’s 60 Minutes interview, 02/22/2001

Letter from “FC” (Unabomber) about failed plane bombing: “Bomber says threat was hoax letter” Buffalo News 06/28/1995

Santana High School shooter: “Killer recounts Santana High shooting” San Diego Tribune Dickey, Fred 05/10/2013

Secretary of Education comments: “Rage blamed at Santana” Associated Press 05/12/2001

Anthrax scare in Newtown: “As Threats Mount, So Does Fear” Gordon, Jane New York Times 10/21/01

Traders: “Gun Sales Jump in Days Since Attack” Los Angeles Times 9/20/2001 https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-2001-sep-20-me-47714-story.html

Peter and Nancy’s separation: Child Advocate Report page 48, CSP summary report pg 29

Box in attic: Scene photos set “Farr – house” image 26

Anthrax comment from Nancy: FBI files from Sandy Hook investigation, released October 2017

Little league: “Berliner Insurance 11, Newtown Bee 2…” Newtown Bee; Harmon, Kim 05/24/2002

Ryan Kraft account: “Adam Lanza was a loner who didn’t feel pain either physically or emotionally says former teacher” Associated Press 12/15/2012

“Hand poem” witness: CSP Report, Book 7, file 00104343

The Exceptional Case Study Project finished their work later that year…: They released a draft report in 2000 that was significantly similar to their final 2004 report; news coverage of it mostly occurred in 2000.

“It puts the burden on adults…”: Arizona Daily Star 03/09/2001

24. The Hospital (A brief history of Fairfield State Hospital)

The first 40 years of the history of Fairfield State Hospital/Fairfield Hills Hospital is primarily based on Chapter 7 of The Mentally Ill in Connecticut: Changing Patterns of Care and the Evolution of Psychiatric Nursing 1636-1972, written by Lois D Heck, R.N., B.S., the Director of Nursing Education at Fairfield Hills. Sections on the development of mental health policy on the national level, and on Rosemary Kennedy, are primarily based on American Psychosis: How the Federal Government Destroyed the Mental Illness Treatment System by E. Fuller Torrey.

Dr. Desmond 1968 retirement: Legendary Locals of Newtown, Daniel Cruson

Definition of De-Institutionalization: Report of the Governor’s Blue Ribbon Commission on Mental Health (State of Connecticut, 2000)

Escaped inmates, early 1970’s shift: “Fairfield Hills State Hospital: ‘Unsafe for Patients, Workers'” Connecticut Sunday Herald Rose, Linda 11/12/1972

Medicaid exception: “The Outdated Institution for Mental Disease Exclusion” John Fergus Edwards, J.D., LL.M. 05/1997 (http://mentalillnesspolicy.org/imd/imd-legal-analysis.html)

Lake case: Catherine Lake, Appellant, v. Dale C. Cameron, Superintendent, Saint Elizabeths Hospital, Appellee, 364 F.2d 657 (D.C. Cir. 1966); Stickney case: “Ricky Wyatt, 57, Dies; Plaintiff in Landmark Mental Care Suit” New York Times 11/03/2011; Rouse case: “Charles C. ROUSE, Appellant, v. Dale C. CAMERON, Superintendent, Saint Elizabeths Hospital, 1967 Donaldson case: “Supreme Court Mental Health Precedent and its Implications” Mary Ann Bernard, J.D. 1978 and United States Supreme Court O’CONNOR v. DONALDSON, (1975) No. 74-8

Constables, “disguised calls”: “Fairfield Hills Security Guards Are Newtown Constables” Connecticut Sunday Herald 09/24/1972

Assassin’s trial: “Hinckley Described as Sane When He Shot Reagan” New York Times 06/05/1982; “Hinckley Refuses to Testify and 2 Sides Rest Cases” 06/17/1982; “Psychiatry Panel Takes the Stand on Taking the Stand” 01/23/1983; “Report Concludes Hinckley Made Conscious Choice in the Shootings” 06/10/1982; “Hinckley Treatments Termed ‘Absolute Calamity'” 05/19/1982; “5 Hinckley Jurors Testify in Senate” 06/05/1982 Mother’s testimony: “Hinckley’s Mother Calls Him ‘Haunted,’ in ‘Total Despair'” Washington Post 05/07/1982; Insanity defense reform: HJ Res 648 98th Congress; “After Hinckley, States Tightened Use Of The Insanity Plea” National Public Radio Jacewicz, Natalie 06/28/2016; Reagan offers visit: “President Offered in ’83 To Meet With Hinckley” Washington Post Cauvin, Henri E. 06/12/2004

Newtown chosen for Garner: “Connecticut Picks Sites To Build 2 New Prisons” New York Times 08/01/1987; Protest against Garner Prison, “Michael” letter: “Hundreds rally to fight new jail at Fairfield Hills” The Hour 11/02/1987; Ditch blocking construction: “Maverick’s Battle Is Uniting His Enemies” New York Times 09/27/1989; Legal fight: “Was The June 6 Vote The Last Of The Big Town Meetings?” Newtown Bee 06/11/2001; “…hell hath no fury like the people of Newtown”: “A Feisty Community is Taking On the State Again” New York Times 12/27/1987; Police cars, sewers: “Living with fear in the shadow of prisons” New York Times 04/02/1992; $1 million in lieu of taxes: “Prison closure directive recalls Newtown controversy” Times-Union Pirro, John 11/08/2009

Town Meeting of June 2001: “Town Finally Poised To Act On Fairfield Hills” Newtown Bee 05/29/2001; “Managers Look Forward To Refurbishing Edmond Town Hall” 01/22/2002; Reed plan: “Reed Sees Split Sessions If 5/6 School Isn’t Built” 08/10/1999; Columbine letter: “What About K-6 Schools” Leslie Boehmer and Kirk Morrison 10/06/1999; Votes pass: “Town Approves Fairfield Hills And 5/6 School Projects” 06/07/2001

25. Treegap

T-shirt, sex ed, etc: “Classmate says Adam Lanza attended Sandy Hook school” USA Today Stoller, Gary and Dorell, Oren 12/18/2012

Contents of the reading journal: CSP photo set “Meehan – suspect’s house evidence” images 27-30

Richard Novia at NHS, new security system: “High Tech Security System Watches Over Newtown High School” Newtown Bee Damon-Merrow, Tanjua 11/13/2002

26. Bushmaster

Main source: FBI SNIPEMUR case file, released by the “FBI Vault” at fbi.gov

Iran Brown story: “Youngest Sniper Vicrtim ID’d” ABC News 12/12/2002

Bushmaster comments: “We Have the Weapon” Bangor Daily News 10/25/2002

Lawsuit: Johnson, Buchanan v Bull’s Eye Shooter Supply; Bushmaster Firearms, Inc

27. The Big Book of Granny

…Dr. John Reed toured the campus…: “Dr Reed Tours His Namesake School” Newtown Bee 12/30/2002; the man who would be replacing… : “Board Selects New Superintendent” 04/10/2002; …named in his honor…: “Reed Intermediate School––5/6 School Named For John Reed” 10/09/2002; …two houses: “New School 95 Percent Complete, On Schedule” 11/06/2002

“Granny” co-author’s mom interview: CSP Official Report, Book 7, file 00194470; Interview with co-author: CSP Official Report, Book 7, file 00232922; Contents of Granny book: CSP Official Report, Book 4, file 00180670

…the creators had access to the same kind of equipment…: Archives of Newtown schools websites show student assignments done in the same format.

“Class list had already been announced….” NOTE: from the redacted interview with the book’s co-author, it is evident that they never had classes together again based on the context of the redacted sections.

28. Shield

“As we dedicate ourselves…”: archived NSSF video (https://web.archive.org/web/20040806011823/http://www.nssf.org/LL_idx.cfm?AoI=LL)

Testimony, Larry Keane, etc.: transcript, Committee of the Judiciary House of Representatives 108th Congress Subcommittee on Commerical and Administrative Law hearing on H.R. 1036, 04/02/2003

“We adjusted our businesses…”: “Assault weapons ban doesn’t faze Bushmaster” Associated Press 05/15/2003

29. On Time, On Budget

Snow delay, Pitkoff badge: “The Reed Intermediate School was definitely the place to be on Monday morning” Newtown Bee

“…did not think highly of himself…” : CSP Summary report, pg 33; 5th grade teacher comments: CSP Official Report, Book 7, file 00205944

Terror Alert system enacted: https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2002/03/20020312-5.html; Terror alert raised: https://www.dhs.gov/homeland-security-advisory-system ; Town Meeting on Iraq War: “Local Forum Addresses an Impending War in Iraq” Hicks, Shannon Newtown Bee 2/7/2003; Plastic sheeting advisory: http://web.archive.org/web/20030407170832/http://www.ready.gov/stay_or_go.html ; Bee article on plastic sheeting sales: http://newtownbee.com/keeping-the-heat-in-and-the-terror-out-residents-stock-up-on-duct-tape-plastic-sheeting/

Newtown adopting of Active Shooter protocol: “Police Panel Approves Policy on Use of Force” Newtown Bee 5/2/03

“Never made trouble or distracted others….”: CSP Summary report, pg 33; Observations of SHES shooter in 6th grade: Child Advocate report, pg 36; Band teacher’s recollections: CSP Official Report, Book 7, file 00223756; School band concerts: CSP Summary report, page 33

Peter saw Adam as a “normal weird kid,” photo of him with father, etc: Andrew Solomon, “The Reckoning”; DDR as recreational activity: Child Advocate report, page 98

Traders municipal lawsuit: http://web.archive.org/web/20040404160754/http://www.law.com/jsp/article.jsp?id=1061487932131 ; ATF investigating Traders again: “Trading in Death” (Brady publication

Chimp in intersection: “Travis the Menace” Lee, Dan P. New York Magazine (http://nymag.com/news/features/70830/)

Nancy’s mortgage on 36 Yogananda: “Nancy Lanza Estate Estimated At $64,000” Altimari, Dave Hartford Courant 2/20/14 and Town of Newtown property records

Reed delays into 2nd year: “Board Receives Updates On Reed School And Transportation” Newtown Bee 2/7/03

“Bomb her” etc: CSP Official Report, Book 7, file 00235748

30. Dusk

Bushmaster comments on settlement: http://web.archive.org/web/20040911001123/http://www.bushmaster.com/ ; NSSF comments on Bushmaster settlement: “Families of sniper victims reach settlement” Washington Times 9/9/04; Motley Fool quote: “Gun Maker Misfires, Hurts Industry” 9/14/2004 (https://www.fool.com/investing/small-cap/2004/09/14/gun-maker-misfires-hurts-industry.aspx); Connecticut impact of AWB lapsing: “Expiration of law banning assault weapons doesn’t affect state” Associated Press 9/14/04

Peter Lanza touring NMS: “The Reckoning” by Andrew Solomon; “It was almost too good to be true…: Note: Many of Peter’s recollections seem to be about a year off when compared with other sources, and I suspect that he is actually thinking of Reed Intermediate School, from a year and half before this scene is portrayed); Lunch room scene: Newtown Middle School “The Lion’s Roar” – Counselor Comments – MacKinney, Kate Feb 2005

“Climate” at the school…: Newtown Middle School “The Lion’s Roar” – Principal’s Corner – Sherlock, Diane; April 2005

31. Nightmare

Main source: the Red Lake shooter’s online footprint as cataloged extensively by Dr. Peter Langman on schoolshooters.info

Insurance as reason for no gun: “Families settle lawsuit over Red Lake shootings” MPR News 7/20/06 (http://www.mprnews.org/story/2006/07/20/redlakesettlement)

Recruitment of accomplices: “Recounting the horror in Red Lake shooting spree” MPR News 3/22/05 (http://news.minnesota.publicradio.org/features/2005/03/22_gundersond_redlakeday2/)

Post about suicide: http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread33823/pg1

Red Lake Detention Center: http://www.bemidjipioneer.com/news/region/3868223-waiting-serve-after-building-vacant-10-years-childrens-healing-center-red-lake and: https://www.mprnews.org/story/2012/04/26/red-lake-juvenile-center ; Red Lake denied mental health grant: “Mental-Health Aid Denied to Killer’s School” New York Times 4/22/05; “Safe schools” grant established after Columbine: https://www.samhsa.gov/safe-schools-healthy-students/about

Drawings, comment from Learning Center: “Shooter Described As Deeply Disturbed” Connolly, Ceci and Hedgpet, Dana Washington Post 3/24/2005

Criticisms of Bush re: Schiavo: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A64317-2005Mar24.html; (NOTE: Terri Schiavo died on March 31, 2005, largely pushing Red Lake out of the news cycle. Two days later, Pope John Paul the II died at the age 84. After that, most people never heard of the Red Lake High School shooting again.)

Dreamcatcher to Red Lake: “From Columbine to Sandy Hook: Muskegon dream catcher travels a tearful journey” Moore, Lynn Michigan Live 10/11/13 (http://www.mlive.com/news/muskegon/index.ssf/2013/10/from_columbine_to_sandy_hook_m.html)

32. Fantasy

Decline of SHES shooter in early middle school: Child Advocate report, pg 36

Xeroxing pages from textbook, Peter assuming his son was bullied, etc: “The Reckoning” by Andrew Solomon

“Adam felt the same way…”: Child Advocate Report, page 64

Framed set of Red Sox photos: CSP scene photos, set “Sec 4 Primary Scene” image 234 ; “Red Sox supper” print: CSP scene photos, set “Sec 5 Back-up Scene 1” image 382;

Richard Novia and the Tech Club: transcript of interview with Richard Novia, Raising Adam Lanza; Origins of Tech Club: “NTV17 Sets Its Sights On A Larger Role In The Community” Newtown Bee 2/28/03 ; Newtown Channel 17: “Lights, Camera, Action – Students Tune Their Talents And Energy To Channel 17” 9/15/00

Quote from Principal Maloney: Minutes of St. Rose of Lima Home and School Association General Meeting, 5/10/05 7:00 p.m.

Descriptions of SHES shooter at St. Rose: “A frustrating search for motive in Newtown shootings” Washington Post 12/22/12; Teacher comments from St. Rose: CSP Official Report, Book 7, file 00004051

The Reed Shooter: https://newtownbee.com/and-administrator-reassurances-student-journal-threats-spark-parent-concerns/ and: https://newtownbee.com/when-fantasybecomes-a-treat/ – Julia and Joseph Morris, Newtown CT; (NOTE: Note: The “Stolen item” was actually not; the search was a result of a series of index cards with steps showing how to make a springloaded pistol, found on the playground, and left behind by a third student. Changed to avoid confusion)

“Blarvink” on GameFAQs: https://www.gamefaqs.com/community/Blarvink/bio ; “Blarvink” on 2draw: https://2draw.net/view/46914/

33. Greater Love

Tyler, Texas shootout description: “Survivors remember deadly Downtown Tyler gun battle” Dean, Kenneth Tyler Morning Telegraph 2/24/15 and: “Revisiting Images from Courthouse Shooting” – KLTV 2/24/05

Representative from Texas comments on Mark Wilson: Congressional Record, House, March 2, 2005

34. Emergency

10 hours tutoring required for homebound status: CT Code, Sec. 10-76d-15.

Sock changes: CSP Official Report, Book 7, File 00017458

Light coming through blinds: (Note) Sensitivity to light is noted frequently in the investigation, and confirmed by the shooter as the reason for covering the windows in online conversations, further supported by the FBI files released October 2018.

“Killer Klowns”: the shooter noted in several online posts that it was his “favorite film”, and a VHS copy of it is visible in scene photos of his bedroom.

Haircut scene: CSP offical report, book 7, file 00091417

Emergency room visits, various doctors notes: Child Advocate report, pgs 36-45

Dr. Fox professional history: licensing records in Connecticut and New York; marriage: “Miss Schneiderman Weds Dr. P. L. Fox” New York Times 4/10/1988

35. Protection

Judiciary committee quotes on PLCAA: COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES ONE HUNDRED NINTH CONGRESS FIRST SESSION ON H.R. 800 MARCH 15, 2005

PLCAA text: Public Law 109–92 ; 109th Congress of the United States

Amendments debated, Columbine amendment: 109TH CONGRESS REPORT” HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 1st Session 109–124 PROTECTION OF LAWFUL COMMERCE IN ARMS ACT – JUNE 14, 2005

Final vote: Congressional Record – H8990 – October 20, 2005

Bill signing location: Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents 10/31/05 Volume 41—Number 43

36. Shelter in Place

…middle school students who had made the Honor Roll that quarter…: “The following Newtown students have been named to first and second honors for this past marking period…” Newtown Bee 12/9/05

Dunblane files: “Dunblane file confirms blunders, says father” Laville, Sandra The Guardian 10/2/05; Original reason for classifying records: “Call to lift secrecy on Dunblane murderer” The Telegraph 2/10/03 ; Mick North comments on Dunblane shooter: “It’s 10 years since Dunblane but I still feel so empty without Sophie” Herald Scotland 2/9/06

NHS Lockdown: “Sandy Hook Man Fined For Gunfire Conviction — Suspended Sentence With Probation” Newtown Bee 7/14/06 and: “School Lockdown Tested Security Reponses” Coney, Susan 4/7/06; Risk of losing accreditation: “Accrediting Panel Gives NHS ‘Warning Status’” 5/19/06; Budget cuts to school: “Maintaining The Quality Of Our School System” 3/14/03

Fairfield Hills excavating: “Details Reveal Signs Of Progress At Fairfield Hills” Newtown Bee 4/28/06; Beginnings of Newtown tax revolt: “Redevelopment Plans Inch Forward At Fairfield Hills” 1/4/08; Bridgeport Hall: “Town Dedicates Newtown Municipal Center At Fairfield Hills” 11/24/09;

DDR mat: CSP scene photos set “Sec 5 – Back-up Scene 1” image 19; (the timing of this purchase is presumed based on the item’s release date and the console generation)

37. Existences

Denver Post breaks journals story: “Columbine documents detail troubled lives” 5/8/16 (http://www.denverpost.com/2006/07/06/columbine-documents-detail-troubled-lives/); Legal trail thru supreme court: “Ruling on Columbine items challenged” 12/13/05; Supreme court decision:. No. 04SC133, Harris v. Denver Post Corp.; “Balancing” test, checking with FBI Behavioral: “Killers’ tapes won’t be released” Denver Post 06/19/06

“Left” journal: JC-001-026387 ; “Right” journal: JC-001-010465 ; “The shooter’s thoughts appear to have been informed…”: NOTE: I first learned of the significance of Hobbes’ philosophy in explaining some of the Columbine shooter’s writings and views from an article by Peter Langman, “Influences on the Ideology of Eric Harris” from schoolshooters.info

Clinton speech at memorial: C-SPAN archive footage “Columbine Memorial Groundbreaking, Jun 16 2006”

38. The Prison

1990 Carl Robinson riot: STATE OF CONNECTICUT v. JULIO RIVERA Feb 2 1993; 1992 Enfield riot: “Police Seeking Ringleaders After Destructive Prison Riot” Puleo, Tom 11/25/1992 Hartford Courant; Drug deal leads to riot: “11 Charged In 1992 Enfield Prison Riot” 11/10/1993; The prisons that lost control all had something in common…: “State Paying Dearly For Cheap Prisons” Cullison, Alan Hartford Courant 7/29/1991; …Connecticut’s prison population had started growing in the late 1970’s…: DOC web page “Accomplishments in 1968-1993” http://www.ct.gov/doc/cwp/view.asp?a=1493&q=464726 ; …he highest rate of inmate injuries … and other details throughout: “Prison Chief Fights Public Anger” Johnson, Kirk The New York Times 11/8/1993; Naming of Garner, first to show movies: “Christmas Movies Delight Prisoners: Local Theater Manager and Two Actors at State Prison” Hartford Courant 12/26/1914

CHAOS: …the staff at Garner were in open revolt: “Newtown Prison Site Of Previous Problems” Schmidt, Karen Hartford Courant 10/02/1993; Newtown residents who lived near the prison…: “Living With Fear in the Shadow of Prisons” New York Times 4/02/1992 Riot: “Standoff after clash at prison” New York Times 4/22/1993; “They weren’t playing basketball,” other notes: “Calm Restored After Violence at New Prison Near Danbury”: New York Times, 04/23/1993; The escape: “New Escape Heightens Fears About Prison” New York Times 9/01/1993; …a search warrant was served at a home in New Haven…: “Connecticut Fugitive Seized in New Haven” New York Times 9/17/1993

TRANQUILITY: Billion dollar spending plan, other notes: “Prison Chief Fights Public Anger” New York Times 11/08/1993; “Get tough on crime…” : “Meachum Snubs Panel Looking Into Enfield Prison Riot” Hartford Courant Mahoney, Edmund 8/03/1994; Close custody program: “A Prison Blurs Colors of Gangs To Curb Violence Among Rivals” Judson, George New York Times 1/29/1996; …staff began monitoring all of their phone calls…: Jaffee vs. Redmond (1996); …a loud disturbance in Cell Block D…: Rodriguez v. Connecticut, 169 F. Supp. 2d 39 (D. Conn. 2001)

ECHOES: …between 1999 and 2003, Garner’s “specialty” would instead shift…: “Prison’s Specialty is Now the Mentally Ill” Struzzi, Diane Hartford Courant 10/17/2004; 2000 expansion debate: “Newtown Vows to Fight Prison Expansion” The New York Times 4/23/2000; “He was assaulting a staff member…”: “Jury decides in favor of state in lawsuit for death of inmate” Danbury News-Times 6/28/2007; Town meeting, state backs down: “Commissioner: No Plans For Garner Expansion” Newtown Bee 12/6/2000; Connecticut State Prison polices under Ward A. Garner: Public Documents of the State of Connecticut 1916 Vol III — Part II; Prison work under Garner: Interstate Commerce in Convict-Made Goods: Hearings before the Committee on Interstate Commerce United States Senate 63rd Congress Second Session on S.2321, March 1914

NEW ERA: …rocked by a massive lawsuit…: UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT DISTRICT OF CONNECTICUT Civil Action No. 3:03CV1352 (RNC) STATE OF CONNECTICUT OFFICE OF PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES; Act (V) CHOINSKI, GOMEZ LANTZ (defendants) March 8 2004 (and RULING ON PLAINTIFFS’ MOTION dated 3/30/2007); the besieged commissioner announced that he was taking an early retirement…: “Prisons Chief Calls It Quits” Hartford Courant 2/05/2003; CT DOC chief in Iraq: “Ex-prisons Chief Cited In Scandal” D’Arcy, Janice Hartford Courant 3/21/2004; …the former mayor of the town of Waterbury stood trial…: “U.S. Sex-Abuse Trial of Former Waterbury Mayor Opens” New York Times 3/13/2003; Reason for mission statement change: CT DOC “Transitional Services Overview” https://portal.ct.gov/DOC/Common-Elements/Common-Elements/Transitional-Services-Overview ; Psych program, “The goal is to keep them busy…”: “Garner Grapples With Transition — To Psychiatric Prison” Gorosko, Andrew Newtown Bee 6/4/2004

NO ESCAPE: “The human mind is the most difficult thing to comprehend…”: “Prison suicides rattle state” Ali, Karen Danbury News-Times 4/21/2004; “…the way we’ve done business in the past is inappropriate with this new population…”: “Garner treats inmates’ mental ills” Associated Press 10/18/2004; Pagers replaced with text messages, Kehoe quote: “Prison installs phone alerts” Gold, Robert Danbury News-Times 9/22/2005; Security system upgraded: “Expanded Prison Surveillance System Nearing Completion” Newtown Bee 12/22/2006; “The inmates I cared for at Garner are the same ones I cared for at Fairfield Hills…”: “Treat, don’t punish, state’s mentally ill” Danbury News-Times 8/8/2005