Notes & Sources: Thin Air (Part III)

24. The Hospital (A brief history of Fairfield State Hospital)

The first 40 years of the history of Fairfield State Hospital/Fairfield Hills Hospital is primarily based on information from Chapter 7 of The Mentally Ill in Connecticut: Changing Patterns of Care and the Evolution of Psychiatric Nursing 1636-1972, written by Lois D Heck, R.N., B.S., a former Director of Nursing Education at Fairfield Hills. Sections on the development of mental health policy on the national level, and on Rosemary Kennedy, are primarily based on information from American Psychosis: How the Federal Government Destroyed the Mental Illness Treatment System by E. Fuller Torrey.

FAIRFIELD HILLS: Dr. Desmond 1968 retirement: Legendary Locals of Newtown, Daniel Cruson

THE ASSASSIN: Definition of De-Institutionalization: Report of the Governor’s Blue Ribbon Commission on Mental Health (State of Connecticut, 2000); Assassin’s trial: “Hinckley Described as Sane When He Shot Reagan” New York Times 06/05/1982; “Hinckley Refuses to Testify and 2 Sides Rest Cases” 06/17/1982; “Psychiatry Panel Takes the Stand on Taking the Stand” 01/23/1983; “Report Concludes Hinckley Made Conscious Choice in the Shootings” 06/10/1982; “Hinckley Treatments Termed ‘Absolute Calamity'” 05/19/1982; “5 Hinckley Jurors Testify in Senate” 06/05/1982 Mother’s testimony: “Hinckley’s Mother Calls Him ‘Haunted,’ in ‘Total Despair'” Washington Post 05/07/1982; Insanity defense reform: HJ Res 648 98th Congress; “After Hinckley, States Tightened Use Of The Insanity Plea” National Public Radio Jacewicz, Natalie 06/28/2016; Reagan offers visit: “President Offered in ’83 To Meet With Hinckley” Washington Post Cauvin, Henri E. 06/12/2004

THE PENDULUM: Medicaid exception: “The Outdated Institution for Mental Disease Exclusion” John Fergus Edwards, J.D., LL.M. 05/1997 (; Lake case: Catherine Lake, Appellant, v. Dale C. Cameron, Superintendent, Saint Elizabeths Hospital, Appellee, 364 F.2d 657 (D.C. Cir. 1966); Stickney case: “Ricky Wyatt, 57, Dies; Plaintiff in Landmark Mental Care Suit” New York Times 11/03/2011; Rouse case: “Charles C. ROUSE, Appellant, v. Dale C. CAMERON, Superintendent, Saint Elizabeths Hospital, 1967 Donaldson case: “Supreme Court Mental Health Precedent and its Implications” Mary Ann Bernard, J.D. 1978 and United States Supreme Court O’CONNOR v. DONALDSON, (1975) No. 74-8

DOWNHILL: Escaped inmates, early 1970’s shift: “Fairfield Hills State Hospital: ‘Unsafe for Patients, Workers'” Connecticut Sunday Herald Rose, Linda 11/12/1972; Constables, “disguised calls”: “Fairfield Hills Security Guards Are Newtown Constables” Connecticut Sunday Herald 09/24/1972

LAST DAYS: Newtown chosen for Garner: “Connecticut Picks Sites To Build 2 New Prisons” New York Times 08/01/1987; Protest against Garner Prison, “Michael” letter: “Hundreds rally to fight new jail at Fairfield Hills” The Hour 11/02/1987; Ditch blocking construction: “Maverick’s Battle Is Uniting His Enemies” New York Times 09/27/1989; Legal fight: “Was The June 6 Vote The Last Of The Big Town Meetings?” Newtown Bee 06/11/2001; “…hell hath no fury like the people of Newtown”: “A Feisty Community is Taking On the State Again” New York Times 12/27/1987; Police cars, sewers: “Living with fear in the shadow of prisons” New York Times 04/02/1992; $1 million in lieu of taxes: “Prison closure directive recalls Newtown controversy” Times-Union Pirro, John 11/08/2009

THE FUTURE OF NEWTOWN: Town Meeting of June 2001: “Town Finally Poised To Act On Fairfield Hills” Newtown Bee 05/29/2001; “Managers Look Forward To Refurbishing Edmond Town Hall” 01/22/2002; Reed plan: “Reed Sees Split Sessions If 5/6 School Isn’t Built” 08/10/1999; Columbine letter: “What About K-6 Schools” Leslie Boehmer and Kirk Morrison 10/06/1999; Votes pass: “Town Approves Fairfield Hills And 5/6 School Projects” 06/07/2001

25. Treegap

T-shirt, sex ed, etc: “Classmate says Adam Lanza attended Sandy Hook school” USA Today Stoller, Gary and Dorell, Oren 12/18/2012; Contents of the reading journal: CSP photo set “Meehan – suspect’s house evidence” images 27-30

Richard Novia at NHS, new security system: “High Tech Security System Watches Over Newtown High School” Newtown Bee Damon-Merrow, Tanjua 11/13/2002

26. Bushmaster

Main source: FBI SNIPEMUR case file, released by the “FBI Vault” at

The boy had been suspended from riding the school bus for a week… Iran Brown story: “Youngest Sniper Victim ID’d” ABC News 12/12/2002

“The sad thing is the shooter, who sounds like a pretty deranged individual, got a hold of our rifle…”: “Seized firearm made in Maine” Bangor Daily News 10/25/2002 (; “Bushmaster deliberately continued to utilize Bull’s Eye as a Bushmaster gun dealer…” and other information from DC Sniper lawsuit: Johnson, Buchanan v Bull’s Eye Shooter Supply; Bushmaster Firearms, Inc

27. The Big Book of Granny

…Dr. John Reed toured the campus…: “Dr Reed Tours His Namesake School” Newtown Bee 12/30/2002; the man who would be replacing… : “Board Selects New Superintendent” 04/10/2002; …named in his honor…: “Reed Intermediate School––5/6 School Named For John Reed” 10/09/2002; …two houses: “New School 95 Percent Complete, On Schedule” 11/06/2002

“Granny” co-author’s mom interview: CSP Official Report, Book 7, file 00194470; Interview with co-author: CSP Official Report, Book 7, file 00232922; Contents of Granny book: CSP Official Report, Book 4, file 00180670; …the creators had access to the same kind of equipment…: Archives of Newtown schools websites show student assignments done in the same format; “…class list had already been announced….” NOTE: from the redacted interview with the book’s co-author, it is evident that they never had classes together again based on the context of the redacted sections.

28. Shield

“As we dedicate ourselves…”: archived NSSF video under heading “Legislative Action” (; Testimony, Larry Keane, etc.: transcript, Committee of the Judiciary House of Representatives 108th Congress Subcommittee on Commerical and Administrative Law hearing on H.R. 1036, 04/02/2003

“We adjusted our businesses…”: “Assault weapons ban doesn’t faze Bushmaster” Associated Press 05/15/2003

29. On Time, On Budget

Snow delay, Pitkoff badge: “The Reed Intermediate School was definitely the place to be on Monday morning” Newtown Bee

“…did not think highly of himself…” : CSP Summary report, pg 33; 5th grade teacher comments: CSP Official Report, Book 7, file 00205944

Terror Alert system enacted:; Terror alert raised: ; Town Meeting on Iraq War: “Local Forum Addresses an Impending War in Iraq” Hicks, Shannon Newtown Bee 2/7/2003; Plastic sheeting advisory: ; Bee article on plastic sheeting sales:

Newtown adopting of Active Shooter protocol: “Police Panel Approves Policy on Use of Force” Newtown Bee 5/2/03

“Never made trouble or distracted others….”: CSP Summary report, pg 33; Observations of SHES shooter in 6th grade: Child Advocate report, pg 36; Band teacher’s recollections: CSP Official Report, Book 7, file 00223756; School band concerts: CSP Summary report, page 33; Peter saw Adam as a “normal weird kid,” photo of him with father, etc: Andrew Solomon, “The Reckoning”; DDR as recreational activity: Child Advocate report, page 98

Traders municipal lawsuit: ; ATF investigating Traders again: “Trading in Death” (Brady publication

Chimp in intersection: “Travis the Menace” Lee, Dan P. New York Magazine (; Nancy’s mortgage on 36 Yogananda: “Nancy Lanza Estate Estimated At $64,000” Altimari, Dave Hartford Courant 2/20/14 and Town of Newtown property records

Reed delays into 2nd year: “Board Receives Updates On Reed School And Transportation” Newtown Bee 2/7/03

“Bomb her” quote, other details from same witness: CSP Official Report, Book 7, file 00235748

30. Dusk

Bushmaster comments on settlement: ; NSSF comments on Bushmaster settlement: “Families of sniper victims reach settlement” Washington Times 9/9/04; Motley Fool quote: “Gun Maker Misfires, Hurts Industry” 9/14/2004 (; Connecticut impact of AWB lapsing: “Expiration of law banning assault weapons doesn’t affect state” Associated Press 9/14/04

Peter Lanza touring NMS: “The Reckoning” by Andrew Solomon; “It was almost too good to be true…: (Note: Many of Peter’s recollections seem to be about a year off when compared with other sources, and I suspect that he is actually thinking of Reed Intermediate School, from a year and half before this scene is portrayed); Lunch room scene: Newtown Middle School “The Lion’s Roar” – Counselor Comments – MacKinney, Kate; February, 2005

“Climate” at the school…: Newtown Middle School “The Lion’s Roar” – Principal’s Corner – Sherlock, Diane; April 2005

31. Nightmare

Main source: the Red Lake shooter’s online footprint as cataloged extensively by Dr. Peter Langman on

Insurance as reason for no gun: “Families settle lawsuit over Red Lake shootings” MPR News 7/20/06 (; Recruitment of accomplices: “Recounting the horror in Red Lake shooting spree” MPR News 3/22/05 (; Post about suicide:; Red Lake Detention Center: and:; Red Lake denied mental health grant: “Mental-Health Aid Denied to Killer’s School” New York Times 4/22/05; “Safe schools” grant established after Columbine:; Drawings, comment from Learning Center: “Shooter Described As Deeply Disturbed” Connolly, Ceci and Hedgpet, Dana Washington Post 3/24/2005

Criticisms of Bush re: Schiavo:; (NOTE: Terri Schiavo died on March 31, 2005, largely pushing Red Lake out of the news cycle. Two days later, Pope John Paul the II died at the age 84. After that, most people never heard of the Red Lake High School shooting again.); Dreamcatcher to Red Lake: “From Columbine to Sandy Hook: Muskegon dream catcher travels a tearful journey” Moore, Lynn Michigan Live 10/11/13 (

32. Fantasy

Decline of SHES shooter in early middle school: Child Advocate report, pg 36; Xeroxing pages from textbook, Peter assuming his son was bullied, etc: “The Reckoning” by Andrew Solomon; “Adam felt the same way…”: Child Advocate Report, page 64; Framed set of Red Sox photos: CSP scene photos, set “Sec 4 Primary Scene” image 234 ; “Red Sox supper” print: CSP scene photos, set “Sec 5 Back-up Scene 1” image 382;

Richard Novia and the Tech Club: transcript of interview with Richard Novia, Raising Adam Lanza; Origins of Tech Club: “NTV17 Sets Its Sights On A Larger Role In The Community” Newtown Bee 2/28/03 ; Newtown Channel 17: “Lights, Camera, Action – Students Tune Their Talents And Energy To Channel 17” 9/15/00

Quote from Principal Maloney: Minutes of St. Rose of Lima Home and School Association General Meeting, 5/10/05 7:00 p.m.; Descriptions of SHES shooter at St. Rose: “A frustrating search for motive in Newtown shootings” Washington Post 12/22/12; Teacher comments from St. Rose: CSP Official Report, Book 7, file 00004051

The Reed “Shooter”: and: – Julia and Joseph Morris, Newtown CT; (NOTE: Note: The “stolen item” was actually not; the search was a result of a series of index cards with steps showing how to make a springloaded pistol, found on the playground, and left behind by a third student. Changed to avoid confusion)

“Blarvink” on GameFAQs: ; “Blarvink” on 2draw:

33. Greater Love

Tyler, Texas shootout description: “Survivors remember deadly Downtown Tyler gun battle” Dean, Kenneth Tyler Morning Telegraph 2/24/15 and: “Revisiting Images from Courthouse Shooting” – KLTV 2/24/05

Representative from Texas comments on Mark Wilson: Congressional Record, House, March 2, 2005

34. Emergency

Sock changes: CSP Official Report, Book 7, File 00017458; he hated the light coming through the blinds…: (Note) Sensitivity to light is noted frequently in the investigation, and confirmed by the shooter as the reason for covering the windows in online conversations, further supported by the FBI files released October 2018; His favorite cinematic find was Killer Klowns from Outer Space: The shooter noted in several online posts that it was his “favorite film”, and a VHS copy of it is visible in scene photos of his bedroom. He was also acquired a copy of the soundtrack.

Haircut scene: CSP offical report, book 7, file 00091417

Emergency room visit, various doctors notes: Child Advocate report, pgs 36-45

Dr. Fox professional history: licensing records in Connecticut and New York; marriage: “Miss Schneiderman Weds Dr. P. L. Fox” New York Times 4/10/1988

35. Protection

Judiciary committee quotes on PLCAA: COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES ONE HUNDRED NINTH CONGRESS FIRST SESSION ON H.R. 800 MARCH 15, 2005; PLCAA text: Public Law 109–92 ; 109th Congress of the United States; Amendments debated, Columbine amendment: 109TH CONGRESS REPORT” HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 1st Session 109–124 PROTECTION OF LAWFUL COMMERCE IN ARMS ACT – JUNE 14, 2005; Final vote: Congressional Record – H8990 – October 20, 2005; Bill signing location: Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents 10/31/05 Volume 41—Number 43

36. Shelter in Place

…middle school students who had made the Honor Roll that quarter…: “The following Newtown students have been named to first and second honors for this past marking period…” Newtown Bee 12/9/05; 10 hours tutoring required for homebound status: CT Code, Sec. 10-76d-15.

Dunblane files: “Dunblane file confirms blunders, says father” Laville, Sandra The Guardian 10/2/05; Original reason for classifying records: “Call to lift secrecy on Dunblane murderer” The Telegraph 2/10/03 ; Mick North comments on Dunblane shooter: “It’s 10 years since Dunblane but I still feel so empty without Sophie” Herald Scotland 2/9/06

NHS Lockdown: “Sandy Hook Man Fined For Gunfire Conviction — Suspended Sentence With Probation” Newtown Bee 7/14/06 and: “School Lockdown Tested Security Reponses” Coney, Susan 4/7/06; Risk of losing accreditation: “Accrediting Panel Gives NHS ‘Warning Status’” 5/19/06; Budget cuts to school: “Maintaining The Quality Of Our School System” 3/14/03

…a backhoe was excavating the soil around the foundation of Bridgeport Hall, Fairfield Hills excavating: “Details Reveal Signs Of Progress At Fairfield Hills” Newtown Bee 4/28/06; Beginnings of Newtown tax revolt: “Redevelopment Plans Inch Forward At Fairfield Hills” 1/4/08; Bridgeport Hall: “Town Dedicates Newtown Municipal Center At Fairfield Hills” 11/24/09;

Peter and Nancy had bought him the home version of Dance Dance Revolution for his Playstation 2…: CSP scene photos set “Sec 5 – Back-up Scene 1” image 19; (the timing of this purchase is presumed based on the item’s release date and the console generation)

37. Existences

Denver Post breaks journals story: “Columbine documents detail troubled lives” 5/8/16 (; Legal trail thru supreme court: “Ruling on Columbine items challenged” 12/13/05; Supreme court decision:. No. 04SC133, Harris v. Denver Post Corp.; “Balancing” test, checking with FBI Behavioral: “Killers’ tapes won’t be released” Denver Post 06/19/06

“Left” journal: JC-001-026387 ; “Right” journal: JC-001-010465 ; “The shooter’s thoughts appear to have been informed…”: NOTE: I first learned of the significance of Hobbes’ philosophy in explaining some of the Columbine shooter’s writings and views from an article by Peter Langman, “Influences on the Ideology of Eric Harris” from

Clinton speech at memorial: C-SPAN archive footage “Columbine Memorial Groundbreaking, Jun 16 2006”