Notes & Sources: Tide & Season (Part II)

11. The Village

Newtown geology/geography: “Natural Resource Inventory: Updating Newtown’s Plan of Conservation and Development” – Town of Newtown report, March 2002; Quanneapague settlement, early history: Historical Notes and Maps – Newtown: 1705-1758 Boyl, John Neville (additional details: Newtown Historical Society, and town report “Sandy Hook Design District Guidelines” Newtown Design Advisory Board, Feb 2007); The natives were peaceful…: As noted, this is a drastic oversimplification; though the initial settlers dealt peacefully with the natives, there were tensions between the natives and settlers, sometimes escalating into violence, well into the 1800’s. This is evident in Newtown’s BiCentennial and other texts.

THE MILL & THE MEETING HOUSE: Formation of intersection: Newtown’s History and Historian Ezra Levan Johnson with additional material by Jane Eliza Johnson; the Historian’s Life Companion, 1907; (other details: Newtown’s BiCentennial – 1705-1905 edited by Ezra Johnson with James Hardin George and Allison Parish Smith 1905, and 1714-1914 The Story of Two Centuries Newtown Congregational Church, 1914); Construction of mill: “The Mills Of Newtown––A Town Moves Forward On Waters And Wheels” Howard, Jan The Newtown Bee 02/07/2003

THE CROWN: Rev. Toucey: The Tousey Family in America compiled by Theodore Cuyler Rose, Elmira NY 1916

THE AWAKENING: Great Awakening: The Great Awakening of 1740 Frederic Leonard Chapell, American Baptist Publication Society, 1903; John Beach: The Reverend John Beach and his Descendants Rebecca Donaldson Beach and Rebecca Donaldson Gibbons, 1895; Pamphlet war: A Mosaic of Newtown History Cruson, Dan; Newtown Historical Society (highly recommended; this book documents many of the local-history events depicted in this chapter, and dozens more.)

THE REBELLION: Trinity Church: “Our History” (; French soldiers: The Journal of Claude Blanchard, Commissary of the French Auxiliary Army sent to the United States during the American Revolution, 1780-1783 (translated by William Duane and edited by Thomas Balch, 1876); First mass: “St Rose Ceremony Marks Newtown’s Link To Church History” The Newtown Bee 11/27/1998 (

THE FOUNDATION: To this day, the lanes of West Street briefly split…: The split lanes really mark the end of West Street, since the road changes to Church Hill Road on the east side of the intersection.

THE LOCOMOTIVE: Irish immigrants, newspaper war: A Mosaic of Newtown History Cruson, & Newtown’s History and Historian, Johnson; Founding of the NRA: “Rifle Practice” Army Navy Journal 04/01/1871; “Rifle-Shooting Association” 08/12/1871

THE FLAGPOLE: The Flagpole: A Mosaic of Newtown History Cruson, Dan & Newtown Historical Society; Army maneuvers 1912: “Red Army Fording Way to New York” New York Times, 08/14/1912; “New York to Known War Danger To-Day” 08/17/1912; “Big War Game Ends, New York is Saved” 08/18/1912; and Images of America: Newtown 1900-1960 Cruson, Dan; Hawley School, academy fire of 1920: “New Booklet Fills In Some Gaps In The History Of Newtown’s Schools” Newtown Bee 1/10/2001 (; Edmond Town Hall: “In Newtown, Going to the Movies is Still a Bargain” New York Times 10/29/89 (naming of: “William Edmond is an Under-sung Hero of Newtown” Cruson, Dan 01/15/2010 []); “Scrabble” development: A Mosaic of Newtown History Cruson, Dan & Newtown Historical Society

THE SCHOOL: SHES construction: “The Last Time Newtown Built a School in Sandy Hook” Silber, Alissa The Newtown Bee 11/07/2013; JFK plaque at SHES: “The Way We Were” The Newtown Bee, 06/20/2014 (reprint of June 26, 1964 headlines)

12. Yogananda

…the Bressons sold their land…: “Francis J. Bresson” (Obituary) The Newtown Bee 06/10/2016; Yoganda property boundaries: property records with Newtown Town Clerk’s Office, Map 20. 6891, various records associated with “Bennetts Farm” and Map No 6891; Population growth: Newtown Population Projections 2000-2030, prepared for Town of Newtown, Connecticut by H.C. Planning consulants, Inc. June 15, 2008

The names of more recent paths…: “The People Behind the Names of Newtown’s Roads” The Newtown Bee Crevier, Nancy 03/28/2008; …the damming of the Housatonic…: National Park Service National Register of Historic Places: Ref. 00001073 Stevenson Dam Hydroelectric Plant; Dr. Yogananda: “Across the Black Water – A Study of Two Hindu Sects in North America” – Martin Shiels, 1978 (Master’s Thesis, Simon Fraser University) and A Short Life of Swami Vivekananda” By Swami Tejasananda, and “Crystal Reading” Davenport Daily Leader, 5/22/1901 (Note: “Dr. Yogananda” aka Dr. Street is a very curious figure, appearing in some historical records and various occult publications under the name “JC Street” or “JB Street” – he appears to have been the same “John C Street” who wrote “The Way Across the Threshold” in 1889, an occult/secret-society book that records some of the same “crystal” rituals that Dr. Yogananda was known for. He later appears in a New York Times report of court hearings from 1903, “This ‘Doctor’ a ‘Reader'” in which a judge appears none too impressed with his credentials as either a doctor or psychic. At one point, Dr. Yogananda protests that his magic crystals allow him to “foretell paralysis.”); Parahamansa Yogananda as likely namesake: “Yogananda Street: a killer’s address” CT Post Hutson, Nanci 10/13/2013 (life events: “Chronology for web” and Autobiography of a Yogi)

15 Lots on 132 acres: “Hearings Continue On Whispering Pines And Tamarack Woods” The Newtown Bee Gorosko, Andy 07/12/1996; Scenic view: “P&Z Proposes Stricter Regs” 02/28/97

“Nothing out of the ordinary…”: “World Exclusive: Inside Adam Lanza’s Bunker of Death” The National Enquirer (Note: this is a tabloid source, as sometimes overlaps with this case due to its sensational qualities; the interview is nonetheless genuine.)

…looking for a “fresh start.”: Child Advocate Report, pg.24; Nancy furnishing 36 Yogananda: “Nancy Lanza in Her Own Words” Frontline; (Items also pictured in CSP photo set “Sec 5 – Back-up Scene 1” image 29, 105; and “Sec 4 Primary Scene” images 52-55)

Sandy Hook shooter’s arrival at 1st grade: Child Advocate report, Pg. 27 (1st grade photo: “Raising Adam Lanza”; Frontline Note: That the teachers in the shooter’s class always appear in group photos with the shooter positioned “within arms reach” is an observation I first heard of from blogger “Sandy Hook Facts” at; SHES Culture Corner: “Dispelling Myths About Native Americans” Newtown Bee 12/04/98 and “Mexico Comes To The Culture Corner” 02/12/1999 (Note: neither article specifically mentions any student by name, but the teacher and time period are the same as the class photo showing the shooter, and shown in documents released after the Courant’s FOIA lawsuit)

13. The Ghost in the Cabin

McVeigh maintained regular correspondence…: “The Prison Letters of Timothy McVeigh” Esquire Bacharach, Phil 06/11/2015

Unabomber main sources: The United States of America Versus Theodore John Kaczynski: Ethics, Power and the Invention of the Unabomber Mello, Michael 1999 and “The Unabomber Case” – FBI Archives, 4/24/2008, and “UNITED STATES v. KACZYNSKI” 2001

14. Promised Land

Arraignment of Thurston shooter: “Kinkel Arraigned For Shootings” CBS News 06/16/1998; Thurston shooter, various notes: “Oregon Teen Killer Drops Insanity Plea” Los Angeles Times Murphy, Kim 09/25/1999 and “Lethal Fantasies of a 15-Year-Old Became a Reality” New York Times Terry, Don & Bruni, Frank 05/24/1998; “three voices”: “The Killer at Thurston High” PBS Frontline Dr. Orin Bolstad testimony

NRA/Metaksa on Thurston: “NRA hails shooting survivor a hero” Associated Press 06/09/1998; Heston speech: “NRA TV” Charlton Heston 1998 meetings Season 4 Episode 2; …“A child issue, not a gun issue”: “New Voice of the NRA Sounds Familiar” Washington Post Russakoff, Dale 06/09/1998

Tobacco settlements inspired gun liability strategy: “Big Guns” Boyer, Peter J. The New Yorker 05/17/199; New Orleans: “New Orleans is Expected to Sue Gun Manufacturers” Los Angeles Times 10/30/1998 and: “Mayor Marc H Morial, and the City of New Orleans vs. Smith & Wesson Corp., Sturm Ruger & Co, Colt et al”; Chicago: “Chicago Sues Gun-makers And Retailers The Lawsuit Says Firearms Create A Deadly Public Nuisance” The Philadelphia Inquirer 11/13/1998; Bridgeport: “After Tobacco, Handgun Lawsuits” New York Times 01/31/1999; SHOT show: “Heston shows at gun rally” Athens Banner-Herald 02/02/1999

NSSF founding, main source for most NSSF details throughout: The National Shooting Sports Foundation: A History, 1961 to 2011 by Doug Painter; Notes from original NSSF founding dinner: (Re-publishing a Guns and Ammo article from November 1961)

15. Eagles Circle

Nancy’s e-mails with Marvin LaFontaine: “Nancy Lanza In Her Own Words” (PBS Frontline & the Hartford Courant)

“…the bare minimum as far as participation…”: CSP Report, Book 7, file 00255780

Eagles of Shepaug dam: “All Eyes On The Eagles” Newtown Bee, 02/19/1999 (NOTE: Nancy appears to have read this same story, or spoke to someone who had, given the numbers of eagles she cites in her email to LaFontaine.)

16. Revolution

Most of the events depicted in this chapter are from the Jefferson County Sheriff’s Office investigation file of the Columbine shooting, commonly referred to as “the 11k”. (The numbering expanded as more exhibits were released as depicted in Chapter 37.) These sources are listed by their document number within the 11,000+ page file, with the prefix “JC”.

Chat conversation: JC-001-026574 (Note: the portrayal of this exchange omits one line, for readability); “Know what I hate/love” lists: JC-001-010411; “Hitmen for hire” tape: JC-001-026274 (NOTE: One of the shooters listed the day’s filming in his planner as “trench coat mafia hitmen”); Right was the more dedicated of the pair…: an observation based on ballistics from the scene, as well as the dynamic apparent in first-hand reports on the “Basement Tapes,” and the preparations evident in the journals; Left’s journal: JC-001-026385; “Man in Black” story: JC-001-010465; Brady Bill, “Shot themselves in the foot”: JC-001-026538; Ketchup Incident: A Mother’s Reckoning: Living in the Aftermath of Tragedy by Sue Klebold, and “The Missing Motive” Westworld Pendergast, Alan 07/13/2000; Drug search incident: No Easy Answers by Brooks Brown; Gun show: JC-001-010620; Farewell video: JC-001-010376; Diversion bomb response: JC-001-007952; Propane receipts: JC-001-025955; general timeline of attack: Columbine Review Commission, May 2001 Governor’s Report; Library encounters: Various files throughout 11k, including JC-001-008798 and JC-001-000075 and JC-001-000089; Car Bomb timers: A Mother’s Reckoning (Klebold); sprinkler in library: JC-001-007884

17. Cascade

“ONE BLEEDING TO DEATH….“: (Note: the sign actually said “1” instead of the spelled-out “one”); Early footage of Columbine: ABC News Archives, 04/20/1999 (; “Most kids didn’t want them there…”: “The Columbine Tapes” Time Gibbs, Nancy & Roche, Timothy 12/20/1999; “The ultimate bullies” (clip from The New Ricki Lake Show, February 2013); National debate on bullying in schools: “10 years alter, the real story behind Columbine” USA Today 04/14/2009

Tony Blair on Columbine: House of Commons transcript, 21 April 1999; “…how important it was to ban handguns…”: (NOTE: With relatively few details available yet on the arsenal that the Columbine shooters used, many assumed at this time, incorrectly, that handguns were their primary weapons. It is perhaps noteworthy, though, that the long-guns used at Columbine would have been banned in the UK as well, after the earlier post-Hungerford firearms law.)

David Kaczynski, “more Tim McVeighs”: “Internet firms asked to keep bombmaking sites off Web” Associated Press 05/20/1999; …“There are individuals, in our society, who claim that we cannot exist without oppression and regulation…”: The Anarchist Cookbook Powell, William 1971

Dream Catcher: “From Columbine to Sandy Hook: Muskegon dream catcher reveals a tearful journey” Muskegon News Moore, Lynn 10/11/2013

Newtown Bee on NHS ceremony: “Columbine Commemoration Will Be A Call For Understanding” Bigham, Steve 05/14/1999 and “Adopting a Covenant of Understanding” 06/04/1999; town’s parents concerned: “NPC Releases Findings on Violence, Hears Suggestions” White, Jeff 10/14/1999 and “Parents Express Their Worries About School” 08/10/1999

…at Duck Pin Bowling: “Raising Adam Lanza” (Frontline) …she was actually very ill…: Nancy’s health concerns are also detailed in the Child Advocate Report, pgs 29-31; “Thoughtful friend to peers” and other development notes: Child Advocate Report pgs 26-28; Thank-you card: CSP photos “Sec 4 Scene Search Day 3” images 72-75; “Quiet depth,” 2nd grade notes: “A frustrating search for motive in Newtown shootings” The Washington Post Fisher, Marc and O’Harrow, Robert and Finn, Peter 12/22/2012; Nancy at birthday party: CSP report, Book 7, file 00256780

18. Wave of Evil

Lautenberg Amendment: S.Amdt.362 to S.254 / 106th Congress of the United States (1999-2000); Clinton response to Dakota Ridge: Public Papers of the President

Heritage High School shooting: “Heritage shooting suspect wrote about Trench Coat Mafia” Associated Press Pilcher, James 08/10/1999 and: “Ga. Boy Took Parents’ Guns” Washington Post 05/22/1999

…nothing to do with Littleton or Georgia”: Congressional Record, US House, 06/07/1999; Columbine father quotes: US Congress, Testimony of Darrell Scott Father of Two Victims of Columbine High School shootings Littleton, Colorado Before the Subcommittee on crime 05/27/1999

Background on Rep. McCarthy (the nurse) and platform: “Widow in L.I.R.R. Massacre Considers Race for Congress on Gun Ban” New York Times 04/12/1996

NSSF on gun show amendment: “Newtown’s NSSF Steps Into The Spotlight Of The Gun Control Debate” Newtown Bee 03/03/2000; “…nothing but a backdoor attempt at gun control…”: “Legislators want to shoot down lawsuits against gun makers” Associated Press 02/24/1999

Texas gun shield law: “Bush quietly signs NRA-backed gun bill” 06/18/1999

Wedgewood Baptist Church shooting: Night of Tragedy, Dawning of Light Crawford, Dan R. (other details from special coverage “Fort Worth Church Shooting” Fort Worth Star-Telegram

Gore and Bush campaign quotes, “Wave of Evil”: “Texas shooting draws broad reaction from presidential candidates” 09/17/1999

19. Radar

Note: The Leesburg symposium actually happened in July. The NCAVC report is blended in with the symposium’s operations more than may be accurate, as there is no available transcript of the symposium.

Main source: The School Shooter: A THREAT ASSESSMENT PERSPECTIVE (FBI)

Various notes on “leakage”: Newspaper of the American Psychiatric Association, Volume XXXII Number 12 06/21/2002; Notes on Padukah shooter, structure of the family: RAMPAGE: The Social Roots of School Shootings (Newman); “…an idea we’ve accepted…”: “Kip Kinkel: A Boy’s Life” Rolling Stone Sullivan, Randall 10/01/1998

Secret Service study on assassinations: “Preventing Assassination: A Monograph” Fein, Robert A. Ph.D. & Special Agent in Charge Bryan Vossekuil, Secret Service Case Study Project, May 1997; “They put us in a room”: “A Radical New Look at Mass Shooters. Why They Do It and How to Stop Them” Critical Incident Analysis Group, University of Virginia School of Medicine; Details of Reagan assassination attempt, various trial notes: Prosecutive Report: John Warnock Hinckley, Jr. Attempted Assassination of Ronald Reagan, President of the United States March 30 1981 – U.S. Department of Justice; Federal Bureau of Investigation; >“Assassin of Rulers” profile (quoted in Secret Service Report): Arthur MacDonald, Assassins of Rulers, 2 J. Am. Inst. Crim. L. & Criminology 505 (May 1911 to March 1912); “We’re looking for different pieces of the puzzle…”: Chicago Sun-Times 10/16/2000

20. Distortion

Emails are from “Nancy Lanza in her own words”, Frontline

“Significant stress in her life…”: Child Advocate Report, page 30

21. Basement Tapes

News conference: “H.S. KILLER TAPE MAY AIR BY JANUARY” New York Post Kaplan, Don 12/22/1999

Basement Tapes: Columbine “11k” file JC-001-010376

Controversy over agreement with TIME: Columbine: A True Crime Story Kass, Jeff

…no less than 130 students stayed home…: “High School Responds to Shooting Rumor” Newtown Bee 03/22/2000

Shooter’s education at SHES: Child Advocate Report pgs 26-28; …she would spot him all alone on the playground…: CSP report, Book 7, file 00256780

22. Smart Guns

Boston Agreement: White House Press Release 03/17/2000: “CLINTON ADMINISTRATION REACHES HISTORIC AGREEMENT WITH SMITH AND WESSON” and “Gun Group Sues To End Pact On Safety Devices” Chicago Tribune 04/27/2000

Million Mom March: White House Press Release 05/08/2000 “President Clinton Meets With Million Mom March Organizers and Renews His Call”; Mick North at Million Mom March: Dunblane: Never Forget (North); Suzanna Gratia, Second Amendment Sisters: From Luby’s to the Legislature (Gratia-Hupp)

Project Homesafe: The National Shooting Sports Foundation: A History 1961 to 2011 (Painter); NSSF “Flag” ad: “U.S. mayors, Sheen take aim at gun ad” Variety McClintock, Pamela 08/23/2000

Cucchiara on election: “Gore, Bush Split Over Guns; Other Justice Stands Similar Oakland Tribune 10/03/2000; CA AWB expansion: California Department of Justice Kasler v. Lockyer Assault Weapon List Monday, October 02, 2000; “Senate Bill 23 Assault Weapon Characteristics”

Heston visits UK: “Heston attacks British gun laws 11/15/2000 and “Heston’s gun claims criticized” 11/15/2000

23. The Ghost in the Cage

Kaczynski on McVeigh: letter from Ted Kaczynski published in American Terrorist: Timothy McVeigh & the Oklahoma City Bombing Michel, Lou and Herbeck, Dan; McVeigh on Kaczynski: CBS’s 60 Minutes interview, 02/22/2001; Letter from “FC” (Unabomber) about failed plane bombing: “Bomber says threat was hoax letter” Buffalo News 06/28/1995

Santana High School shooter: “Killer recounts Santana High shooting” San Diego Tribune Dickey, Fred 05/10/2013; Secretary of Education comments: “Rage blamed at Santana” Associated Press 05/12/2001

Anthrax scare in Newtown: “As Threats Mount, So Does Fear” Gordon, Jane New York Times 10/21/01

Traders: “Gun Sales Jump in Days Since Attack” Los Angeles Times 9/20/2001

Peter and Nancy’s separation: Child Advocate Report page 48, CSP summary report pg 29; Box in attic: Scene photos set “Farr – house” image 26; >Anthrax comment from Nancy: FBI files from Sandy Hook investigation, released October 2017; Little league: “Berliner Insurance 11, Newtown Bee 2…” Newtown Bee; Harmon, Kim 05/24/2002; Ryan Kraft account: “Adam Lanza was a loner who didn’t feel pain either physically or emotionally says former teacher” Associated Press 12/15/2012; “Hand poem” witness: CSP Report, Book 7, file 00104343

The Exceptional Case Study Project finished their work later that year…: The 2000 release was actually a draft report, but turned out to be significantly similar to their final 2004 report; news coverage of the report mostly occurred in 2000; “It puts the burden on adults…”: Arizona Daily Star 03/09/2001